Jurisprudence Terninologies

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    Artifacts Any object made by human beings, especially

    with a view to subsequent use, a handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, as a shard of pottery, characteristic of an earlier time or cultural stage, especially such an object found at an archaeological excavation.

    Atrocity Extreme Cruelty as like Nazi Germany Canon An ecclesiastical rule or law enacted by a

    council or other competent authority; the body of ecclesiastical law; the body of rules, principles, or standards accepted as axiomatic and universally binding in a field of study or art: eg. the neoclassical canon.; a fundamental principle or general rule: the canons of good behavior.; a standard; criterion: the canons of taste.

    Creed Any system, doctrine, or formula of religious

    belief, as of a denomination; any system or codification of belief or of opinion.; Syn.: faith, conviction, credo, dogma.

    Desideratum Things wanted or needed; Synonyms: essentials,

    necessities, requisites, sine qua nons.

    A B C

    D E F


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    Encumbrance A thing that impedes or is burdensome; hindrance ; (law) a burden or charge upon property, such as a mortgage or lien; (rare) a dependent person, esp a child a lien, mortgage, or other financial claim against a property.

    Epistemology: A branch of philosophy that investigates the

    origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.

    Eschatology The branch of theology or eg. exegesis

    concerned with the end of the world ; the study of the four last things: death, judgment, heaven, hell. Related: Eschatological ; eschatologically.

    Esoteric (Laws) understood by or meant for only the

    select few who have special knowledge or interest; recondite: poetry full of esoteric allusions.; belonging to the select few.

    private; secret; confidential. Ethos Sociology. the fundamental character or spirit of

    a culture; the underlying sentiment that informs the beliefs, customs, or practices of a group or society; dominant assumptions of a people or period: In the Greek ethos the individual was highly valued. the character or disposition of a community, group, person, etc. the moral element in dramatic literature that determines a character's action rather than his or her

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    thought or emotion. ; the distinctive character, spirit, and attitudes of a people, culture, era, etc: the revolutionary ethos

    Fiduciary Law-a person to whom property or power is

    entrusted for the benefit of another. adj: Law of or relating to- the relation between a fiduciary and his or her principal: a fiduciary capacity; a fiduciary duty.; of, based on, or in the nature of trust and confidence, as in public affairs: a fiduciary obligation of government employees. depending on public confidence for value or currency, as fiat money. a person bound to act for another's benefit, as a trustee in relation to his beneficiary having the nature of a trust ; of or relating to a trust or trustee.

    Grudge The anger and dislike of somebody because

    someone has done something bad to him in the past. eg. Grudge informer in Nazi Germany

    Hellenism Greek tradition especially of ancient Greece;

    ancient Greek culture or ideals; the imitation or adoption of ancient Greek language, thought, customs, art, etc.: the Hellenism of Alexandrian Jew; the characteristics of Greek culture, especially after the time of Alexander the Great; civilization of the Hellenistic period; the principles, ideals, and pursuits associated with

    G H I


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    classical Greek civilization ; the spirit or national character of the Greeks ;conformity to, imitation of, or devotion to the culture of ancient Greece; the cosmopolitan civilization of the Hellenistic world.

    Hermenuitics: The science of interpretation, especially of the

    Scriptures; the branch of theology that deals with the principles and methodology of exegesis ; the study and interpretation of human behaviour and social institutions; (in existentialist thought) discussion of the purpose of life

    Immutable Not mutable, unchangeable, changeless;

    unchanging through time; unalterable; ageless:

    immutable laws eg. Natural Law thinkers

    considers Natural law as immutable law.

    Iniquitous Characterized by injustice or wickedness;

    wicked; sinful; Synonym: flagitious, nefarious, perverse, evil, base, unjust, wrong eg. iniquitous laws of Nazi Germany.

    Leviathan Bible: a ses monster; any huge marine animal as

    the whale a; anything of immense size and power, (any huge or powerful thing), as a huge ocean going ship; (Initial Capital letter, italics) a philosophical work (1651) by Thomas Hobbes dealing with the (Strong & Powerful) political organization of society.

    J K L

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    Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that treats of first

    principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology; dealing with first principles, the relation of universals to particulars, and the teleological doctrine of causation.; the branch of philosophy that deals with first principles, esp of being and knowing; the philosophical study of the nature of reality, concerned with such questions as the existence of God, the external world, etc

    Nihilism Total rejection of established laws and

    institutions; anarchy, terrorism, or other revolutionary activity. total and absolute destructiveness, especially toward the world at large and including oneself: the power-mad nihilism that marked Hitler's last years.

    Philosophy: an extreme form of skepticism: the

    denial of all real existence or the possibility of an objective basis for truth.; nothingness or nonexistence.

    (sometimes initial capital letter) the principles of

    a Russian revolutionary group, active in the latter half of the 19th century, holding that existing social and political institutions.

    M N O

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    Oligarchy A form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few; government by a small group of people; a state or organization so governed; a small body of individuals ruling such a state.

    Ontology: The branch of metaphysics that studies the

    nature of existence or being as such. Theory of Human Nature.

    Orthodox Conforming with established or accepted

    standards, as in religion, behaviour, or attitudes ; customary or conventional, as a means or method; established; Syn. Traditional

    Paradox A statement or proposition that seems self-

    contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth; a self-contradictory and false proposition; any person, thing, or situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature; an opinion or statement contrary to commonly accepted opinion; Synonym: Puzzle.

    Permutation Alteration, Transformation; Synonym:

    modification, transmutation, change.

    P Q R

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    Plea An appeal or entreaty: a plea for mercy; something that is alleged, urged, or pleaded in defense or justification. an excuse; pretext: He begged off on the plea that his car wasn't workin; Law; an allegation made by, or on behalf of, a party to a legal suit, in support of his or her claim or defense; defendant's answer to a legal declaration or charge; (in courts of equity) a plea that admits the truth of the declaration, but alleges special or new matter in avoidance; Obsolete. a suit or action. Syn. request, petition, supplication, solicitation, suit.; justification.

    Prepetrator A person who perpetrates, or commits, an

    illegal, criminal, or evil act: eg. The perpetrators of this heinous crime must be found and punished to the fullest extent of the law.

    Protagonist The leading character, hero, or heroine of a

    drama or other literary work; a proponent for or advocate of a political cause, social program, etc.; the leader or principal person in a movement, cause, etc.

    Reign The period during which a sovereign occupies

    the throne; royal rule or authority; sovereignty.; dominating power or influence: the period during which a monarch is the official ruler of a country ; a period during which a person or thing is dominant, influential, or powerful: the reign of violence is over verb (intransitive) to exercise the power and authority of a sovereign.


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    Rhetoric The art of discourse, an art that aims to improve

    the capability of writers or speakers to inform, most likely to persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the European tradition. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion." Rhetorics typically provide heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos, pathos, and ethos. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. Along with grammar an