Universidad autnoma del Carmen des: ciencias y humanidades. Lengua inglesa 3 semester lengua inglesa
Universidad autnoma del Carmen
des: ciencias y humanidades
tics aplicada a la enseanza en ingles
alondra vernica centeno contreras
Computer Assisted Language Learning:an Introductionby Mark Warschauer
The first phase of CALL, conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the 1960s and '70s, was based on the then-dominant behaviorist theories of learning. Programs of this phase entailed repetitive language drills and can be referred to as "drill and practice" (or, more pejoratively, as "drill and kill"). The second phase of CALL was based on the communicative approach to teaching which became prominent in the 1970s and 80s. Proponents of this approach felt that the drill and practice programs of the previous decade did not allow enough authentic communication to be of much value. The third model of computers in communicative CALL involves the computer as tool (Brierley & Kemble 1991; Taylor 1980) or, as sometimes called, the computer as workhorse (Taylor & Perez 1989). In this role, the programs do not necessarily provide any language material at all, but rather empower the learner to use or understand language. Examples of computer as tool include word processors, spelling and grammar checkers, desk-top publishing programs, and concordancers.
Steps toward integrative CALL: multimedia,Steps toward integrative CALL: the Internet This communication can be asynchronous (not simultaneous) through tools such as electronic mail (email), which allows each participant to compose messages at their time and pace, or in can be synchronous (synchronous, "real time"), using programs such as MOOs, which allow people all around the world to have a simultaneous conversation by typing at their keyboards
Appendix A:A typology of CALL programs and applications
The international telecommunications union estimates the worldwide ict market in 2002 was almost 2.1 trillion. However ICT is much more than computers and internet or maybe telephones, basic human needs and development health monitoring and epidemiology empowerment. Also the history about internet sheds some light regarding the problems faced by users.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Information society governance
Culture economic, education, labour law. mobile phones traditional landines by 2.1 in Africa, such as (Wi-Fi) offer attractive opportunities for fixed wireless access, however many countries are yet to embrace unlicensed spectrum. It is mentioned that computing and other hardware continue to become less and less expensive the birth and the growth of the interne were in the united states but now is around the world. In east Asian, Korea and china these countries have been building next generation networks.
ReferencesAhmad K., Corbett G., Rogers M., & Sussex R. (1985)Computers, language learning and language teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Barson J. & Debski R. (1996) "Calling back CALL: technology in the service of foreign language learning based on creativity, contingency, and goal-oriented activity". In Warschauer M. (ed.)Telecollaboration in foreign language learning, Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center: 49-68.Bowers R. (1995) "WWW-Based Instruction for EST". In Orr T. (ed.)English for science and technology: profiles and perspectives, Aizuwakamatsu, Japan: Center for Language Research, University of Aizu: 5-8.Bowers R. (1996) "Web publishing for students of EST". In Warschauer (ed.)Virtual connections: online activities and projects for networking language learners, Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawai Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.Brierley B. & Kemble I. (1991)Computers as a tool in language teaching, New York: Ellis Horwood.Garrett N. (1991) "Technology in the service of language learning: trends and issues",Modern Language Journal75,1: 74-101.Healey D. & Johnson N. (eds.) (1995a)1995 TESOL CALL Interest Section software list. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.