Healing garden or gardening?

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    23-Jan-2018

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  • Healing garden or gardening?

    Data from the Perceived Restorativeness Scale

    Costantina Righetto, Francesca Meneghello and Giorgio Prosdocimi Gianquinto

    AgrUrb Roma 2015

  • The environmental context

  • Restorative potential of the garden

    A restorative

    environment can

    provide cognitive

    restoration,

    recovery from

    stress, shift to

    more positive

    mood states or

    recovery from

    directed

    attentional fatigue

    Garden to Relive

  • Theoretical bases

    Attention Restauration Theory (Kaplan

    and Kaplan, 1995)

    Stress reduction Theory (Ulrich, 1983;

    Ulrich et al., 1991)

    Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS)

    (Hartig et al., 1997)

    Higher scores in the PRS mean higher

    regenerative potential (Hartig et al.,

    1997)

    Pasini et al. (2009) demonstrated that

    an Italian version of PRS is reliable

  • The PRS scale is based on the four regenerative factors :

    being away, fascination, extent, and compatibility

    Fascination

    Compatibility

    Being away

    Extent

    Restorativeness

  • Fascination is the

    property of an

    environment that

    holds ones effortless

    attention

    Fascination

  • Being away means

    a physically or

    conceptually

    distance in ones

    mind from usual

    routines

    Being away

  • Extent of the

    environment

    allows one to

    remain

    engaged

    Extent

  • Compatibility is

    the property of

    an environment

    that supports

    what one wants

    to do

    Compatibility

  • The question

    Is there any difference in the regenerative potential

    of the garden between people

    walking in the garden

    people engaged in horticultural and

    gardening activities

    People who know the existence of the garden, that work nearby it and that sometimes look at it but dont regularly attend the garden

  • Activity Total

    number

    Relatives Hospital

    employees

    Patients

    Working 34 4 1 29

    Walking 27 12 2 13

    Not regularly attending the

    garden 37 15 14 8

    The sample

  • PRS Scale: the items (Hartig et al.1997)

    List of variables determining the regenerative capacity

    BAWAY_1 Spending time here give me a good break from my day to

    day routine

    BAWAY_2 It is an escape experience

    EXT_1 There is much to explore and discover here

    EXT_2 It is a orderly place

    FASC_1 The setting has fascinating qualities

    FASC_2 I would like to get to know this place better

    COMP_1 Being here suits my personality

    COMP_2 I can do things I like here

    It includes

    eight

    questions

    with two

    items for

    each

    regenerative

    factor.

  • Italian version of PRS (Dentamaro et al., 2011)

    List of variables determining the regenerative capacity and related questions in Italian

    language

    BAWAY_1 Trascorrere il tempo qui mi permette di staccare dal mio tran tran

    quotidiano

    BAWAY_2 In questo luogo posso scappare dalle cose che di solito richiedono la mia

    attenzione

    EXT_1 E come se questo luogo non avesse confini

    EXT_2 C un ordine chiaro nella disposizione fisica di questo luogo

    FASC_1 Questo luogo affascinante

    FASC_2 C molto da esplorare e da scoprire in questo luogo

    COMP_1 Essere in questo luogo in accordo con i miei interessi personali

    COMP_2 In questo luogo facile fare ci che voglio

  • Statistical analisys

    The restorative

    potential was

    obtained from the

    average of the eight

    answers related to

    the four regenerative

    factors (Berto, 2005;

    Ivarsson &

    Hagerhall, 2008).

    Collected data were

    analysed using

    ANOVA and Chi-

    square Test.

  • Results: analysis of the components of the

    restorative effect

  • Results : analysis of the components of the restorative effect being away

    Average of being away for the different

    activities (Anova)

    P-value 0,0021

    Average of being away for the different activities

    (Chi-square Test)

    2,76*

    2,10 2,09

    0

    0,5

    1

    1,5

    2

    2,5

    3

    Working in the garden Not regularly attending

    the garden

    Walking in the garden

    BEING AWAY

  • Results extent

    Average of extent for the different

    activities (Anova)

    P-value 0,0000

    Average of extent for the different activities (Chi-

    square Test))

    2,97*

    2,14 2,42

    0

    0,5

    1

    1,5

    2

    2,5

    3

    3,5

    Working in the garden Not regularly attending the garden

    Walking in the garden

    EXTENT

  • Results fascination

    Average of fascination for the

    different activities (Anova)

    P-value 0,0003

    Average of fascination for the different activities

    (Chi-square Test))

    3,23*

    2,89

    2,44

    0

    0,5

    1

    1,5

    2

    2,5

    3

    3,5

    Working in the garden Not regularly attending the garden

    Walking in the garden

    FASCINATION

  • Results compatibility

    Average of compatibility for the different

    activities (Anova)

    P-value 0,0002

    Average of compatibility for the different

    activities (Chi-square Test))

    2,77*

    1,98 2,01

    0

    0,5

    1

    1,5

    2

    2,5

    3

    Working in the garden

    Not regularly attending the garden

    Walking in the garden

    COMPATIBILITY

  • Results restorativeness capability of the garden

    Level of restorativeness for the different

    activities (Chi square Test)

    P-value 0,0000

    Average of restorativeness for the

    different activities (Anova)

    2,93*

    2,28 2,24

    0

    0,5

    1

    1,5

    2

    2,5

    3

    3,5

    Working in the garden

    Looking at the garden

    Walking in the garden

  • CONCLUSION 1

    Results suggest that between the acts of walking in a garden or working in a garden or just looking at it, there is a consequence in the regenerative capacity that the garden can provide.

    Despite some methodological limitations the assumption that the direct contact with the plants offers the possibility of a greater regeneration was confirmed.

  • CONCLUSION 2

    It could be assumed that working with

    plants would open a kind of deep

    connection with nature that is so

    essential to receive psychological and

    physiological benefits (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1990; Lee, 2010; Palsdottir et al., 2014).

  • Thank you for your attention

    costantinarighetto2@unibo.it

    giardino.terapeutico@ospedalesancamillo.net

    mailto:costantinarighetto2@unibo.itmailto:costantinarighetto2@unibo.itmailto:costantinarighetto2@unibo.it