GI Conditions & Diseases

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GI Conditions & Diseases

GI Conditions & Diseases

Presentation prepared by Gastroenterology SpecialistsThere are a multitude of gastrointestinal conditions and diseases that can affect our lives and health.Here, you will find a list of many of these disorders. By clicking on the name of each, you will be led to theAmerican College of Gastroenterologys Patient Education & Resource Centerand be able to learn more about the diseaseAcid RefluxBarretts EsophagusGastroesophageal reflux is a physical condition in which acid from the stomach flows backward up into the esophagus.

People will experience heartburn symptoms when excessive amounts of acid reflux into the esophagus.

Many describe heartburn as a feeling of burning discomfort, localized behind the breastbone, that moves up toward the neck and throat.In order to understand Barrett's esophagus it is useful to understand the normal appearance of the esophagus.

In the normal esophagus, the tissue lining appears pale pink and smooth.

These flat square cells, called "squamous" (Latin for square) cells, make up the normal lining of the esophagus.Gallbladder DisordersCirrhosis of the LiverGallstones are collections of cholesterol, bile pigment or a combination of the two, which can form in the gallbladder or within the bile ducts of the liver.

If gallstones form in the biliary system they can cause blockage of the bile ducts, which normally drain bile from the gallbladder and liver.

Cirrhosis of the liver refers to scarring of the liver which results in abnormal liver function as a consequence of chronic (long-term) liver injury.

Cirrhosis can be caused by many conditions including fatty liver disease, inherited disorders, drug-induced injury, bile duct disorders and autoimmune diseases.Colon CancerCrohns DiseaseColorectal (large bowel) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the inner lining of the colon or rectum.

Most colon and rectal cancers originate from benign wart-like growths on the inner lining of the colon or rectum called polyps.Crohn's disease (CD) belongs to a group of diseases collectively called Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) which also includes Ulcerative Colitis (UC).

It typically involves both the superficial and deep layers of the intestinal wall.DiverticulitisEosinophilic EsophagitisDiverticulosis refers to the presence of small out-pouchings (called diverticula) or sacs that can develop in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.

While diverticula can be present anywhere in the entire digestive tract, they are most common on the left side of the large intestine, the area known as the descending and sigmoid colonEosinophilic esophagitis (also known as EoE) is a disease characterized by the presence of a large number of a special type of white blood cell, the eosinophil, that can cause inflammation in the esophagus.

This inflammation can lead to stiffening or narrowing of the esophagus, which can lead to difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) or food getting stuck in the esophagus.Gallstone PancreatitisHemorrhoids and Other Anal DisordersGallstone pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that results from blockage of the pancreas duct by a gallstone.

Gallstone pancreatitis can be a life-threatening disease and evaluation by a physician urgently is needed if someone with gallstones suddenly develops severe abdominal pain.Hemorrhoids are blood vessels (veins) in the anal canal. When those blood vessels become swollen or dilated, symptoms may develop. Many people have hemorrhoids, but have no symptoms.

Gastrointestinal CancersPancreatitis Acute and ChronicThere are two main types of cancer that can occur in the esophagus.

Squamous cell carcinoma occurs more commonly in the upper or middle part of the esophagus.

Adenocarcinoma occurs in the lower part of the esophagus.Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by intermittent or constant upper abdominal pain. Other features of chronic pancreatitis include greasy or oily stool as well as difficult to control diabetesPeptic Ulcer DiseasePrimary Biliary CirrhosisAn ulcer is an open sore. The word peptic means that the cause of the problem is due to acid.

Most of the time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an ulcer the doctor means a peptic ulcer.Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the bile ducts.

In PBC, it is thought that the immune system attacks and destroys small bile duct cells in the liver.

Rectal Problems in WomenSmall Bowel BleedingThe rectum refers to the last four or five inches of the digestive tract.

The rectal outlet or opening is called the anal canal or anus.

Problems in this area are common, but many adults are too shy or embarrassed to ask their doctor about them.The small bowel (or small intestine) is the longest portion of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

It is called "small" because it is thin or narrow compared with the "large" bowel but it is much longer than the large bowel .

The small intestine is involved in nutrient absorption from food.

Stomach CancerUlcerative ColitisStomach cancer can develop in any part of the stomach and can spread throughout the stomach and to other organs such as the small intestines, lymph nodes, liver, pancreas and colon.Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease marked by inflammation of the lining of the colon and rectum, together known as the large intestine.

This inflammation causes irritation in the lining of the large intestine which leads to the symptoms of UC.Viral HepatitisWilson DiseaseAlthough other viruses can involve the liver, viral hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver due to one of several viruses that specifically attack the liver. These viruses are labeled with the letters A, B, C, D and E. The most important viruses in the United States are viral hepatitis A, B and C.Wilson disease is an inherited disorder that causes too much copper to accumulate in the liver, brain, and other vital organs.

In Wilson disease, a genetic defect prevents the body from getting rid of extra copper.To know more about these diseases:Visit: