Wilmar Schaufeli: Employee Engagement

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Wilmar Schaufeli: Employee Engagement FIOH Research Day 21 Nov 2014

Text of Wilmar Schaufeli: Employee Engagement

  • 1. Positive occupational healthThe challenge for the futureWilmar SchaufeliUtrecht UniversityThe Netherlands&University of LeuvenBelgiumJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 1

2. The Low Countries Leuven UtrechtJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 2 3. City of UtrechtJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 3 4. City of LeuvenJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 4 5. Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 5 6. The Janus-face of workLabor: Animal laborans Effort Strain Sacrifice Blood, sweat & tears In the sweat of thy face shaltthou eat bread (Genesis 3:19)The traditional view Disease Disorder Damage DisabilityOpus: Homo faber Creativity Productivity Challenge Development In and through labor manbecomes man (Karl Marx)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 6 7. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal humanfunctioning. It aims to discover and promote the factors thatallow individuals and communities to thriveMartin Seligman (1999)Its time for a change..Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 7 8. Positive concepts Appreciative inquiry Authentic leadership Character strengths andvirtues Courage Emotional intelligence Empowerment Flourishing Flow Gratitude Hope Organizationalvirtuousness Organizational spontaneity Organization based self-etsteem Passion Psychological capital Resilience Self-efficacy Serving leadership Spirituality Spirit at work Thriving Transcendent behaviorJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 8 9. Changes in the world of workFrom To Stability Continuous change Monoculture Diversity Vertical hierarchy Horizontal networks External supervision & control Self-control & empowerment Dependence on organization Accountability & employability Fixed schedules & work patterns Boundarylessness Physical demands Mental and emotional demands Individual work Team work Detailed job descriptions Job craftingJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 9 10. PsychologizationFor modern organizations, mental capital is of increasingimportance. Therefore they do not need a merely healthyworkforce but a motivated workforce that is engaged.Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 10 11. The emergence of engagement First used in the 1990s in business contexts Increase of importance of mental capital From 2000 onwards also in academia Emergence of positive psychologyJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 11 12. Engagement = business 2,030,000 hits (in 0.19 sec.) All major consultancy firms are involvedJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 12 13. Engagement is on the riseSource: Google Scholar4003503002502001501005002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Work engagement Employee engagementJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 13Number of publications 14. Why positive?Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 14Scientific To overcome the one-sided negative focus To challenge the notion of one-dimensionality To add explanatory powerPractical To be in line with business developments To connect HRM and OH&SPragmatic It is more appealing It is fun 15. What is engagement?Concept and measurementJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 15 16. Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 16 17. Engagement in business: Engaged employees consistently demonstrate three generalbehaviors. They: (1) Say consistently speak positively about theorganization to co-workers, potential employees, and customers; (2)Stay have an intense desire to be a member of the organization despiteopportunities to work elsewhere; (3) Strive exert extra time, effort,and initiative to contribute to business success (www.hewittassociates.com).Employee engagement is usually defined in terms of: Organizational commitment (affective say and continuance - stay) Extra-role behavior (discretionary effort - strive)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 17 18. Engagement in academiaWork engagement is a positive, affective-motivational state offulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, andabsorption (p. 74).Schaufeli et al. (2002)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 18 19. Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) Vigor At my job I feel strong and vigorous Dedication I am enthusiastic about my work Absorption I get carried away by my workAvailable in 26 language versions from www.wilmarschaufeli.nlFinnish version: Seppl et al. (2009)Schaufeli et al. (2002, 2006)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 19 20. What do we know?Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 20 21. Prevalence of engagementStudy Sample Engaged (%)Gallup (2010) US 28%Towers Perrin (2005) US 23%Blessing White (2005) US 21%Towers Perrin (2004) UKFranceGermany14%14%23%Gallup (2003) UKFranceGermany19%12%12% 25% 15%Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 21 22. Demographics of engagement(N = 4,000 representative Dutch national sample) Weak positive relationship with age (r = .10) No systematic gender differences Differences between professions:Smulders (2006)High in engagement: entrepreneurs teachers managers artists farmers sales persons nursesLow in engagement: blue-collar workers food processing printers police officers ICT-workers home care staff retail workersJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 22 23. Development of engagement across time Engagement is relatively stable across time (Mauno et al., 2007; Seppl et al.,2009) Engagement and workaholism develop separately, job changehas positive effect (Mkikangas et al., 2013) Vigor and exhaustion do not develop in tandem, but dedicationand cynicism do (Mkikangas et al., 2012) Two profiles: Engaged and Exhausted-Workaholic (Innanen et al., 2014)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 23 24. Engagement model in businessLinkage studiesEngagementdriversEmployeeengagementBusinessoutcomesJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 24 25. Drivers of engagement Trust and integrity of management Personal relationship with manager Co-workers and team (support, climate) Challenging job (autonomy, participation) Skill development Career opportunities Line-of-sight between individual and company performance Pride about the companySource: Gibbons (2006), based on 12 studies using over 500,000 employees around the globeJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 25 26. Business outcomes (linkage studies) Sales performance at team level (Bates, 2004 Fleming et al. 2005) Customer service productivity (Conference Board, 2003) Customer satisfaction (Coco & Jamison, 2011) Companys financial performance (Hewitt, 2004) Individual job performance (CLC, 2004) Customers discretionary purchases (Oakley, 2005) Retention and turnover (Towers Perrin, 2005)For additional case studies see the report to the UK government of MacLeod & Clarke (2010). Engagingfor success: Enhancing performance through engagement.Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 26 27. Engaged vs. non-engaged units152 organizations; 32,394 business units; 955,905 employeesGallup, 2010; See also Harter, Schmidt & Hayes, 2002Absenteeism Safety incidents Quality (defects)Customersatisfaction Productivity Profitability- 37%- 49%- 60%+12%+18% +16%Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 27 28. Academic studies Is engagement something specific? What are its antecedents and consequences How can it be explained?Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 28 29. Types of affective employee well-beingACTIVATIONDISPLEASURE PLEASUREDEACTIVATIONAdapted from Russell (2003)SATISFIEDWORKADDICTEDBURNED-OUTENGAGEDJorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 29 30. Putting the taxomomy to the testSalanova et al. (2014)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 30 31. Engagement goes beyond job satisfactionCorrelation between engagement and satisfaction: .53 (k=4, N=9,712)k N Satisfaction EngagementTask performance 5 1175 .30 .39Contextual performance 4 1139 .24 .43Christian, Garza & Slaughter (2011)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 31 32. AntecedentsJob resources Job control Social support Performance feedback Opportunity to develop Task variety Responsibility Transformational leadership Value fit Organizational justiceChallenge demands Workload Time urgency Mental demandsFor reviews and meta-analyses see: Halbesleben (2010); Mauno et al. (2010); Crawford et al. 2010; Christian et al. (2011)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 32 33. AntecedentsChallenge demands Workload (challenging job) Time urgency (idem) Mental demands (idem)Job resources Job control (autonomy) Social support (co-workers and team) Performance feedback (line-of-sight) Opportunity to develop (career opportunities) Task variety (skill development) Responsibility (challenging job) Transformational leadership (personal relation with leader) Value fit (pride) Organizational justice (trust & integrity)For reviews and meta-analyses see: Halbesleben (2010); Mauno et al. (2010); Crawford et al. 2010; Christian et al. (2011)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 33 34. Person characteristics Emotional stability Extraversion Conscientiousness Optimism Self-confidence Achievement striving Adaptive perfectionism (i.e. personal standards)For reviews see: Simpson (2009), Schaufeli & Salanova (2008), Schaufeli & Taris (2012)Jorma Rantanen lecture, FIOH, 21 November 2014 - 34 35. Individual outcomesPhysical Reactivity of the HPA (Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal) axis (Langelaan et al. 2006) Cardiac autonomic activity (Seppl et al., 2012)Mental Low levels depression (Hakanen & Schaufeli, 2012; Anxiety (Innstrand, 2012) Perceived physical/psychosomatic health (Schaufeli, Taris, van Rhenen, 2008) Sleep quality (Kubota et al., 20l1); Sleep hygiene (Barber et al., 2013)Behavioral Workability(Airila et al. 2012) Proac