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1. Telomerase Activation: The Key to Unlocking theAging PuzzlePresentation by: Noel Thomas PattonFounder and ChairmanTelomerase Activation Sciences, Inc.
2. The Nobel prize in medicine was awarded in 2009for the discovery of telomerase.There are over 8,000 scientific publicationsregarding telomeres & telomerase.Telomeres are critical sequences of DNA becausethey protect all the other DNA on thechromosomes2010 study at Harvard Medical School showstelomere shortening to be a root cause of cellularaging and mitochondrial degradation.Age related decline, dysfunction, and a shortenedlifespan are all related to telomere shortening. 3. Repetitive DNA sequences (six-nucleotide TTAGGG) at the ends of chromosomes In a human cell there are 46 chromosomes,23 from your mother and 23 from your father.So each cell has a total of 92 telomeres (oneat each end) 4. Serve as chromosome end-caps to protect theintegrity of our genes. Keep chromosomes from degrading to preventfusion and massive genomic instability. Allow cells to replicate (cells can not dividewhen telomeres get too short)Bottom Line: Telomeres protect cellsfrom DNA mutations, senescence anddeath. 5. Somatic (body) cells make up more than 99% of the cells in the adult body . have little or no telomerase and telomeres shorten as we get older. Telomere Length Shortening: Conception: Our telomeres start out 15,000 base pairs (bp) long. By Birth the embryo has divided so many times that telomere length is down to 10,000 bp. Over the rest of our lifetime we lose another 5,000 to 7,000 bp. When telomere length gets down to 3-5,000 bp, the genome is no longer protected from mutations, the cell can no longer divide, becomes scenescent, metabolism slows down, and the cell dies. 6. Telomeres are theBiological Clock of Aging Telomere shortening regulates how manytimes a cell can divide and signals changes ingene expression to an older phenotype. Telomeres shorten each time a somatic(body) cell divides. This is the aging clock. When telomeres get too short, cells can nolonger replicate and they become old(senescent) or die. Telomere length represents your biologicalage as opposed to chronological age. 7. Telomere Length vs. Cellular AgePopulation Doublings TimeSlide courtesy of Woody Wright, Ph.D. 8. When Cells Divide,Telomeres get Shorter 9. and can no longer protect the chromosome 10. Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) reported a study that followed 800 people for 10 years and found that people with the shortest telomeres were 11 times more likely to die of cancer than people with the longest telomeres:11 times is statistically huge!Telomere Length and Risk of Incident Cancer and Cancer MortalityJAMA. 2010;304(1):69-75. 11. People with shorter telomeres in their immune cells hadtwice the risk of death from heart failure as patients withthe longest telomeres. From A study sponsored by the American HeartAssociation (2008)Farzaneh-Fal et al. Prognostic Value of Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients WithStable Coronary Artery Disease: Data From the Heart and Soul Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & VascularBiology. 2008. 28(7):1379-1384. "Short telomeres appear to be associated with increasedrisks for human bladder, head and neck, lung, and renalcell cancers." Telomere Dysfunction: A Potential Cancer Predisposition Factor (2003)J National CancerInst. 2003 Aug 20;95(16)1211-18. Wu X, Amos CI, et. Al Fraternal twins with the shortest telomeres had a threetimes greater risk of death during the follow-up periodthan their co-twins with the longest telomeremeasurements Telomere length predicts survival independent of genetic influences (2007)Stephanie L. Bakaysa, Lorelei A. Mucci, P. Eline Slagboom, Dorret I. Boomsma, Gerald E. McClearn, BooJohansson and Nancy L. Pedersen. Aging Cell, 2007. 12. The disease of shorttelomeres 13. Low Telomerase/Telomere Shortening Accelerated AgingCell SenescenceInflammatory DamageLoss of Tissue Function Degenerative Disease Cancer 14. Leada healthy lifestyle Activate Telomerase 15. TELOMERASE is a natural enzyme thatstabilizes telomere length by adding DNArepeats (TTAGGG ) onto the telomeric ends ofthe chromosomes, thus compensating for theerosion of telomeres when cells divide. 16. TelomeraseTelomere Telomerase 17. TelomeraseTelomere hTERThTRtemplate Telomerase is a molecular motor that adds new DNA onto the ends of telomeresSlide courtesy of Woody Wright, Ph.D. 18. Telomerase prevents telomere shortening andcellular replicative senescence. Telomerase makes cells live longer and bypassthe Hayflick Limit. Telomerase causes cells to revert to a youngerphenotype. That means cells actually becomeyounger! 19. Telomerase Extends Cell Life Span and Overcomes the Hayflick Limit160140 ] hTERT + Population DoublingsCells have Telomerase12010080]hTERT -Cells have No Telomerase60400 50 100 150 200 250 300 Days Slide courtesy of Woody Wright, Ph.D. 20. Telomerase Prevents And ReversesTelomere Shortening 21. 10,000 genes on a chipYoungOld Telomerized (notice overall changes) (rejuvenated to Young)Actual data in: Funk et al, Exp Cell Res, 2000 22. Short Telomeres Gray and Thinning HairThese Mice are Weakened Immune System theSame Age! Intestinal AtrophyThe one on top Reduced Spleen Sizehas no Decreased Wound Healing telomerase. Decreased Lifespan!Long TelomeresRudolph, et al Cell 1999Samper, et al EMBO rep2001Slide courtesy of Bill Andrews 23. Human skin on a mouseYoungOld TelomerizedSlide courtesy of Bill AndrewsFunk et al, Exp Cell Res, 2000 24. Telomerase Activation was used to change oldmice back to young adults. Brain, spleen and reproductive organs were allrejuvenated; Resulting in increased neurons and new viablesperm cells. Sense of smell returned. None of the mice developed cancer. Harvard Nov 2010 DePinho et al 25. There is a whole class of diseases causedby short telomeres. Short telomeres are involved with all thediseases associated with aging. Few specialists are aware of the root causeof the diseases they are treating. 26. Cardiovascular Muscular Dystrophy Cancer Cell & Tissue Transplants COPD AIDS Degenerative Disc ProgeriaDisease Dyskeratosis Congenita Alzheimers Idiopathic Pulmonary Osteoarthritis Fibrosis Rheumatoid Arthritis Cri du Chat syndrome Osteoporosis Downs Syndrome General Immunity Fanconis Anemia Skin Aging Tuberous Sclerosis Macular Degeneration Werners Syndrome Liver Cirrhosis And, Aging Itself??????? 27. TA-65The Worlds Only Telomerase Activation Product TA-65is a rare molecule discovered in a common medicinal plant. TA-65 is proven to transiently activate telomerase. 28. Regulatory Element Telomerase Gene 29. RepressorRegulatory Element Telomerase Gene 30. Regulatory Element Telomerase Gene 31. The most striking in vivo effects were: Decline in the percent senescent cytotoxic T cells (CD8+/CD28-) at 6 and 12 months In a subset of subjects, the distribution of telomere lengths inleukocytes at baseline and 12 months were measured. There wasa significant reduction in the percent of short (