Skin cancer and warts

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SKIN CANCERSkin cancer also known as melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocytes. Because most of these cells still make melanin, melanoma tumors are often brown or black.

EPIDEMIOLOGYIn 2007 in united state 56940 cases of melanoma reported.In 1996 2 per 100000 patient.In 2001 2.7 per 100000 patient reported.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGYSun light exposure cause formation of thymine dimers. DNA repair removes most UV induced damage. Cumulative DNA damage leads to mutation. The sunlight depresses the local immune system and decreasing immune surveillance of new tumor cells.


SIGNS & SYMPTOMSUnusual soresLumpsBlemishes Marking changes in color.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTPhysical examineSkin biopsySentinel lymph node biopsyCT scanMRI

TREATMENTInterferonInterleukin-2Other medicines such as ipilimumabChemotherapy such as dacarbazine

WARTSWarts are raised bumps on the skin caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

EPIDEMIOLOGYWorldwide frequency is unknown but estimated approximately 7-12% of the population.In school aged children 10-20% reported.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGYThe Human papillomavirus infects the epithelium and systemic dissemination of the virus not occurs. Virus replicate in the epidermis layer.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMSRough surfaceRound or oval wartsSpot where warts may be lighter or darker than other skinSome warts cause pain

DIAGNOSTIC TESTImmunohistochemical detection of HPV structural proteins.Polymerase chain reaction may be used to amplify viral DNA

TREATMENTTopical agentsIntralesional injectionsPhotodynamic therapySystemic agents