of 20 /20

Plegable BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR

Embed Size (px)

Text of Plegable BIOLOGÍA MOLECULAR

  • University of MassachusettsMedical School. (2016, July 21).Scientists untangle Barr bodyof inactive X chromosome:Highly elaborate chromosomestructure. ScienceDaily.Retrieved July 27, 2016 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160721143503.htm

    Asociacin RUVID. (2016, July20). XX protection against age-relatedmutations. ScienceDaily.Retrieved July 27, 2016 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160720094446.htm

    MARTINEZ SNCHEZ, LinaMara. Biologa molecular. 8.ed. Medelln: UPB. Fac. deMedicina, 2015. 59 p.

    University of MassachusettsMedical School. (2016, July 21).Scientists untangle Barr bodyof inactive X chromosome:Highly elaborate chromosomestructure. ScienceDaily.Retrieved July 27, 2016 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160721143503.htm

    Asociacin RUVID. (2016, July20). XX protection against age-relatedmutations. ScienceDaily.Retrieved July 27, 2016 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160720094446.htm

    MARTINEZ SNCHEZ, LinaMara. Biologa molecular. 8.ed. Medelln: UPB. Fac. deMedicina, 2015. 59 p.

    The researches treated inhere have specialimportance because theydecrypt chromosomalmachinery by giving adescription of the Barr bodythat involves active DNAand by describing that aninactive X chromosome hasa protective effect forfemales. This may be theanswer ofor sex prevalencediseases and aging processin genders and this is thepoint where genic therapycan make tracking ofspecific mutations and givea diagnosis or cure inagreement to specificgenes and its expression.

    The researches treated inhere have specialimportance because theydecrypt chromosomalmachinery by giving adescription of the Barr bodythat involves active DNAand by describing that aninactive X chromosome hasa protective effect forfemales. This may be theanswer ofor sex prevalencediseases and aging processin genders and this is thepoint where genic therapycan make tracking ofspecific mutations and givea diagnosis or cure inagreement to specificgenes and its expression.

  • The chromatin is a condensedstructured formed byeukaryotic DNA and chromatinproteins like histones and non-histone proteins.A chromosome is a structurecomposed by wrappedchromatin and it is essential forthe cellular division.

    Cell cycle is the process thatcells make to divide and origindaughter cells with an specificamount of genetic informationand its divided in three periodscalled interphase, mitosis andcytokinesis.All these events are involved inorganism maintenance anddevelopment.

    The chromatin is a condensedstructured formed byeukaryotic DNA and chromatinproteins like histones and non-histone proteins.A chromosome is a structurecomposed by wrappedchromatin and it is essential forthe cellular division.

    Cell cycle is the process thatcells make to divide and origindaughter cells with an specificamount of genetic informationand its divided in three periodscalled interphase, mitosis andcytokinesis.All these events are involved inorganism maintenance anddevelopment.

    Researchers at the University ofValencia's Cavanilles Institute ofBiodiversity and EvolutionaryBiology tested and confirmedthat differences in lifespanbetween the sexes may indeedbe due to the protective effectof having two copies of the Xchromosome.The explanation for this lies in thefact that most geneticmutations are by naturerecessive. For XX individuals, thismeans they are only harmfulwhen the same mutation occursin both copies of the Xchromosome, otherwise theyare not expressed. In the case ofXY individuals, with no 'guard',any recessive mutation presentin either the X or the Ychromosome would beexpressed unconditionally.STUDENTS OBSERVATIONThis study helps to develop a fullexplanation about mutationalexpression and aging in males,being an important target forgenic therapy.

    Researchers at the University ofValencia's Cavanilles Institute ofBiodiversity and EvolutionaryBiology tested and confirmedthat differences in lifespanbetween the sexes may indeedbe due to the protective effectof having two copies of the Xchromosome.The explanation for this lies in thefact that most geneticmutations are by naturerecessive. For XX individuals, thismeans they are only harmfulwhen the same mutation occursin both copies of the Xchromosome, otherwise theyare not expressed. In the case ofXY individuals, with no 'guard',any recessive mutation presentin either the X or the Ychromosome would beexpressed unconditionally.STUDENTS OBSERVATIONThis study helps to develop a fullexplanation about mutationalexpression and aging in males,being an important target forgenic therapy.

    Scientist at UMass Medical School,the Institut Curie in Paris andStanford University have taken adetailed look inside the small,densely packed structure of theinactive X chromosome found infemale mammals called the Barrbody.What they found was that the Barrbody wasn't a single dense massof DNA but instead is composedof two separately packed lobesseparated by a highly repetitivesegment of DNA called amacrosatellite repeat, found onlyin a few places in the genome. Dr.Dekker speculates that thesemacrosatellite repeats areresponsible for packing andorganizing DNA inside the Barrbody.

    STUDENTS OBSERVATIONFinding a possible function of theBarr body can open doors toresearch in the field of mutationsin DNA packing and relate it tofemale prevalence diseases givingthe key to a cure.

  • Chromatin packaged inchromosomes allows geneticinformation to fit in the nucleus

    Determines the characteristics ofevery cell of the organism

    Growth, development, division,gametes origin and preservationof genetic information are incharge of cell cycle

  • Scientists untangle Barr body of inactive Xchromosome: Highly elaborate

    chromosome structure.University of Massachusetts Medical.

    21 July 2016.

  • Inactive X chromosome:highly organized structure Two distinct lobes of

    condensed inactive DNA Smaller structured

    domains of active DNAembedded in them

    Domains significant role ingene expression

    The Barr body is composedof two separately packed

    lobes separated by ahighly repetitive segment

    of DNA called aMACROSATELLITE REPEATResponsible for packingand organizing DNA inside

    the Barr body?

  • Process of thethree-dimensionalstructure of thechromosomes

    Process of thethree-dimensionalstructure of thechromosomes

    Cross two different mousestrains

    Build a computational approach

    Use naturally occurring mutations in oneof the X chromosomes as guideposts

    Fill in the gapscomputationally andconnect enough dots

  • Clusters of genes insidethe lobes that are being

    expressed

    These genes reside insidetopologically associating

    domains (TADs)

    TADs organize thegenome into

    neighborhoods separatedby boundaries rich in

    CTCF proteins

    CTCF proteins represstranscription

    TADs play a role inmaking organizinggene expression

  • XX protection against age-relatedmutations.

    Asociacin RUVID.20 July 2016.

  • The accumulation ofmutations over the course ofa lifetime, or passed on from

    generation to generation,has a larger affect on the sexthat has just one 'unguarded'copy of the X chromosome;generally males, including in

    human beings.

  • Affects the lifespan of thehomogametic sex (individuals

    with two of the same sex-determining chromosomes)

    to a greater extent

    INBREEDING inDrosophilamelanogaster

    Heterogametic sex (with twodifferent sex-determining

    chromosomes)is less affected

    The X chromosome is only 'guarded' if thetwo X chromosomes are different, whichis not the case after repeated inbreeding

    The X chromosome is always'unguarded', with or withoutinbreeding

  • Otherwise theyare simply not

    expressed

    XX individuals: theyare only harmful when

    the same mutationoccurs in both copiesof the X chromosome

    Most geneticmutations are

    by naturerecessive

  • Full development ofthe chromosome

    structure is importantfor people of themedical field to

    understand its functionand so, gen expression

    applied to health orpathology.

  • This researches may be theexplanation of why some mutationsaffect males over females and that

    enables the development of specifictreatments to prevent or to cure the

    diseases caused by them.

  • Both studies were made with thefinal intention of increasing generalpeoples life quality byunderstanding normal geneticexpression and abnormalities thatare the cause of many diseases orthe prone to it. An specificchromosome and an specificlocation may be applied by genictherapy according to everyonesdifferences. By using this resource inthe medical field patients wouldhave much better results.

    Both studies were made with thefinal intention of increasing generalpeoples life quality byunderstanding normal geneticexpression and abnormalities thatare the cause of many diseases orthe prone to it. An specificchromosome and an specificlocation may be applied by genictherapy according to everyonesdifferences. By using this resource inthe medical field patients wouldhave much better results.

  • University of Massachusetts Medical School. (2016, July 21).Scientists untangle Barr body of inactive X chromosome:Highly elaborate chromosome structure. ScienceDaily.Retrieved July 27, 2016 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160721143503.htm

    Asociacin RUVID. (2016, July 20). XX protection againstage-related mutations. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2016fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160720094446.htm

    MARTINEZ SNCHEZ, Lina Mara. Biologa molecular. 8. ed.Medelln: UPB. Fac. de Medicina, 2015. 59 p.

    University of Massachusetts Medical School. (2016, July 21).Scientists untangle Barr body of inactive X chromosome:Highly elaborate chromosome structure. ScienceDaily.Retrieved July 27, 2016 fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160721143503.htm

    Asociacin RUVID. (2016, July 20). XX protection againstage-related mutations. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2016fromwww.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160720094446.htm

    MARTINEZ SNCHEZ, Lina Mara. Biologa molecular. 8. ed.Medelln: UPB. Fac. de Medicina, 2015. 59 p.