Information about parkinson’s disease, causes, symptoms, homeopathy treatment, or homeopathy medicine for the cure of parkinson’s disease.

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Page 1: parkinsons disease

Information about parkinson’s disease, causes, symptoms, homeopathy

treatment, or homeopathy medicine for the cure of parkinson’s disease.

Also called: Paralysis agitans, Shaking palsy

Page 2: parkinsons disease

Parkinson’s disease (also known as Parkinson disease or Parkinson’s Disease) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often

impairs the sufferer’s motor skills and speech.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been known and treated since

ancient times. However, it was not formally recognized and its symptoms

were not documenteduntil 1817, in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. by the British physician James Parkinson. Parkinson’s disease

was then known as paralysis agitans, the term “Parkinson’s disease”

being coined later by Jean Martin Charcot. The underlying

biochemical changes in  the brain were identified in the 1950′s, due

largely to the work of Swedish scientist Arwid Carlsson, who later went

on to win a Nobel prize.

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder that affects nerve cells, or neurons, in a

part of the brain that controls muscle movement. In Parkinson’s, neurons

that make a chemical called dopamine die or do not work properly.

Dopaminenormally sends signals that help coordinate your movements.

Parkinson’s is a disease that causes aprogressive loss of nerve cell

function in the part of the brain that controls muscle movement.

Progressive means that this disease’s effects get worse over time.

Parkinson’s disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement

disorders. The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation

of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the

insufficient formation and action of dopamine ,which is produced in the

dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Secondary symptoms may include

high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems.

Parkinson’s Disease is both chronic and progressive.

Parkinson’s Disease is the most common cause of parkinsonism a group

of similar symptoms. Parkinson’s Disease is also called “primary

parkinsonism” or “idiopathic  Parkinson’s Disease” (having no known

cause). While most forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic, there are some

cases where the symptoms may result from toxicity, drugs, genetic

mutation, head trauma, or other medical disorders.

Early symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease are subtle and occur gradually.

Affected people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a

chair.  They may notice that they speak too softly or that their

handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. They may lose track of a

word or thought, or they may feel tired, irritable, or depressed for no

apparent reason. This very early period may last a long time before the

Page 3: parkinsons disease

more classic and obvious symptoms appear.

Friends or family members may be the first to notice changes

in someone with early Parkinson’s Disease. They may see that the

person’s face lacks expression and animation (known as “masked face”)

or that the person does not move an arm or leg normally. They also may

notice that the person seems stiff, unsteady, or unusually slow.

As the disease progresses, the shaking or tremor that affects the majority

of Parkinson’s patients may begin to interfere with daily activities.

Patients may not be able to hold utensils steady or they may find that the

shaking makes reading a newspaper difficult. Tremor is usually the

symptom that causes people to seek medical help.

People with Parkinson’s Disease often develop a so-called Parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward, small quick steps as if

hurrying forward (called festination), and reduced swinging of the arms.

They also may have trouble initiating movement (start hesitation), and

they may stop suddenly as they walk (freezing).

Parkinson’s Disease does not affect everyone the same way, and the rate

of progression differs among patients.  Tremor is the major symptom for

some patients, while for others; tremor is nonexistent or very minor.

Parkinson’s Disease symptoms often begin on one side of the body.  

However, as it progresses, the disease eventually affects both sides. 

Even after the disease involves both sides of the body, the symptoms are

often less severe on one side than on the other.

Tremor. The tremor associated with Parkinson’s Disease has a

characteristic appearance. Typically, the tremor takes the form of a

rhythmic back-and-forth motion at a rate of 4-6 beats per second. It may

involve the thumb and forefinger and appear as a “pill rolling” tremor. 

Tremor often begins in a hand, although sometimes a foot or the jaw is

affected first. It is most obvious when the hand is at rest or when a

person is under stress.  For example, the shaking may become more

pronounced a few seconds after the hands are rested on a table.  Tremor

usually disappears during sleep or improves with intentional movement.

Rigidity-. Rigidity, or a resistance to movement, affects most people

with Parkinson’s Disease. A major principle of body movement is that all

muscles have an opposing muscle. Movement is possible not just because

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one muscle becomes more active, but because the opposing muscle

relaxes. In Parkinson’s Disease, rigidity comes about when, in response

to signals from the brain, the delicate balance of opposing muscles is

disturbed. The muscles remain constantly tensed and contracted so that

the person aches or feels stiff or weak. The rigidity becomes obvious

when another person tries to move the patient’s arm, which will move

only in ratchet-like or short, jerky movements known as “cogwheel”


Bradykinesia. – Bradykinesia, or the slowing down and loss of

spontaneous and automatic movement, is particularly frustrating because

it may make simple tasks somewhat difficult.  The person cannot rapidly

perform routine movements. Activities once performed quickly and easily

— such as washing or dressing — may take several hours.

Postural instability.- Postural instability, or impaired balance, causes

patients to fall easily.  Affected people also may develop a stooped

posture in which the head is bowed and the shoulders are drooped.

A number of other symptoms may accompany Parkinson’s Disease. Some are minor; others are not. Many can be treated with

medication or physical therapy. No one can predict which symptoms will

affect an individual patient, and the intensity of the symptoms varies from

person to person.

§      Depression. This is a common problem and may appear early in the

course of the disease, even before other symptoms are noticed.

Fortunately, depression usually can be successfully treated with

antidepressant medications. Hallucinations,delusions and paranoia may


§      Emotional changes. Some people with Parkinson’s Disease

become fearful and insecure. Perhaps they fear they cannot cope with

new situations. They may not want to travel, go to parties, or socialize

with friends. Some lose their motivation and become dependent on family

members. Others may become irritable or uncharacteristically


§     Difficulty with swallowing and chewing. Muscles used in

swallowing may work less efficiently in later stages of the disease. In

these cases, food and saliva may collect in the mouth and back of the

throat, which can result in choking or drooling. These problems also may

make it difficult to get adequate nutrition.  Speech-language therapists,

occupational therapists, and dieticians can often help with these


Page 5: parkinsons disease

§     Speech changes. About half of all Parkinson’s Disease patients

have problems with speech. They may speak too softly or in a monotone,

hesitate before speaking, slur or repeat their words, or speak too fast. A

speech therapist may be able to help patients reduce some of these


§      Urinary problems or constipation. In some patients, bladder

and bowel problems can occur due to the improper functioning of the

autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for regulating smooth

muscle activity. Some people may become incontinent, while others have

trouble urinating. In others, constipation may occur because the

intestinal tract operates more slowly. Constipation can also be caused by

inactivity, eating a poor diet, or drinking too little fluid. The medications

used to treat Parkinson’s Disease also can contribute to constipation.  It

can be a persistent problem and, in rare cases, can be serious enough to

require hospitalization.

§      Skin problems. In Parkinson’s Disease, it is common for the skin

on the face to become very oily, particularly on the forehead and at the

sides of the nose. The scalp may become oily too, resulting in dandruff. In

other cases, the skin can become very dry. These problems are also the

result of an improperly functioning autonomic nervous system. Standard

treatments for skin problems can help. Excessive sweating, another

common symptom, is usually controllable with medications used for

Parkinson’s Disease.

§      Sleep problems. Sleep problems common in Parkinson’s Disease

include difficulty staying asleep at night, restless sleep, nightmares and

emotional dreams, and drowsiness or sudden sleep onset during the day. 

Patients with Parkinson’s Disease should never take over-the-counter

sleep aids without consulting their physicians.

§      Dementia or other cognitive problems.  Some, but not all,

people with Parkinson’s Disease may develop memory problems and slow

thinking.  In some of these cases, cognitive problems become more

severe, leading to a condition called Parkinson’s dementia late in the

course of the disease.  This dementia may affect memory, social

judgment, language, reasoning, or other mental skills.

§     Orthostatic hypotension. < Orthostatic hypotension is a sudden

drop in blood pressure when a person stands up from a lying-down

position.  This may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and, in extreme

cases, loss of balance or fainting.  Studies have suggested that, in

Parkinson’s Disease, this problem results from a loss of nerve endings in

Page 6: parkinsons disease

the sympathetic nervous system that controls heart rate, blood pressure,

and other automatic functions in the body.  The medications used to treat

Parkinson’s Disease also may contribute to this symptom.

§     Muscle cramps and dystonia.   The rigidity and lack of normal

movement associated with Parkinson’s Disease often causes muscle

cramps, especially in the legs and toes.  Massage, stretching, and

applying heat may help with these cramps.  Parkinson’s Disease also can

be associated with dystonia — sustained muscle contractions that cause

forced or twisted positions.  Dystonia in Parkinson’s Disease is often

caused by fluctuations in the body’s level of dopamine.  It can usually be

relieved or reduced by adjusting the person’s medications.

§      Pain.  Many people with Parkinson’s Disease develop aching

muscles and joints because of the rigidity and abnormal postures often

associated with the disease.  Certain exercises also may help.  People

with Parkinson’s Disease also may develop pain due to compression of

nerve roots or dystonia-related muscle spasms.  In rare cases, people

with Parkinson’s Disease may develop unexplained burning, stabbing

sensations.  This type of pain, called “central pain,” originates in the

brain.  Dopaminergic drugs, opiates, antidepressants, and other types of

drugs may all be used to treat this type of pain.

§      Fatigue and loss of energy.  The unusual demands of living with

Parkinson’s Disease often lead to problems with fatigue, especially late in

the day.  Fatigue may be associated with depression or sleep disorders,

but it also may result from muscle stress or from overdoing activity when

the person feels well.  Fatigue also may result fromakinesia – trouble

initiating or carrying out movement.  Exercise, good sleep habits, staying

mentally active, and not forcing too many activities in a short time may

help to alleviate fatigue.

§      Sexual dysfunction.  Parkinson’s Disease often causes erectile

dysfunction because of its effects on nerve signals from the brain or

because of poor blood circulation.  Parkinson’s Disease-related

depression or use of antidepressant medication also may cause decreased

sex drive and other problems.  These problems are often treatable.

Impaired visual contrast sensitivity , spatial reasoning, colour

discrimination, convergence insufficiency (characterized by double vision

) and oculomotor disturbances.

Dizziness and fainting; usually attributable to orthostatic hypotension, a

failure of the autonomous nervous system to adjust blood pressure in

Page 7: parkinsons disease

response to changes in body position

Impaired propriception (the awareness of bodily position in three-

dimensional space)

Reduction or loss of sense of smell (microsmia or anosmia) – can occur

years prior to diagnosis,

Pain: neuropathic, muscle, joints and tendons, attributable to tension,

dystonia, rigidity, joint stiffness, and injuries associated with attempts at


The main causes could be graded under four headings:



Head injury

Drug induced

Parkinson’s disease occurs when nerve cells, or neurons, in an area of the

brain known as the substantia nigra die or become impaired. Normally,

these neurons produce an important brain chemical known

as dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical messengerresponsible for

transmitting signals between the substantia nigra and the next “relay

station” of the brain, the corpus striatum, to produce smooth, purposeful

movement. Loss of dopamine results in abnormal nerve firing patterns

within the brain that cause impaired movement. Studies have shown that

most Parkinson’s patients have lost 60 to 80 percent or more of the

dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra by the time symptoms

appear.  Recent studies have shown that people with Parkinson’s Disease

also have loss of the nerve endings that produce the neurotransmitter nor

epinephrine. Nor epinephrine, which is closely related to dopamine, is

the main chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, the

part of the nervous system that controls many automatic functions of the

body, such as pulse and blood pressure. The loss of nor epinephrine

might help explain several of the non-motor features seen in Parkinson’s

Disease, including fatigue and abnormalities of blood pressure


Scientists have identified several genetic mutations associated with

Parkinson’s Disease, and many more genes have been tentatively linked

Page 8: parkinsons disease

to the disorder.  Studying the genes responsible for inherited cases of

Parkinson’s Disease can help researchers understand both inherited and

sporadic cases. The same genes and proteins that are altered in inherited

cases may also be altered in sporadic cases by environmental toxins or

other factors.

Although the importance of genetics in Parkinson’s Disease is

increasingly recognized, most researchers believe environmental

exposures increase a person’s risk of developing the disease. Even in

familial cases, exposure to toxins or other environmental factors may

influence when symptoms of the disease appear or how the disease

progresses. There are a number of toxins, such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2,

3, 6-tetrahydropyridine, or MPTP (found in some kinds of synthetic

heroin), that can cause Parkinson Ian symptoms in humans.  Other, still-

unidentified environmental factors also may cause Parkinson’s Disease in

genetically susceptible individuals.

Viruses are another possible environmental trigger for Parkinson’s

Disease. People who developed encephalopathy after a 1918 influenza

epidemic were later stricken with severe, progressive Parkinson’s-like

symptoms. A group of Taiwanese women developed similar symptoms

after contracting herpes virus infections. In these women, the symptoms,

which later disappeared, were linked to a temporary inflammation of the

substantia nigra.

Several lines of research suggest that mitochondria may play a role in the

development of Parkinson’s Disease. Mitochondria are the energy-

producing components of the cell and are major sources of free radicals

— molecules that damage membranes, proteins, DNA, and other parts of

the cell. This damage is often referred to as oxidative stress. Oxidative

stress-related changes, including free radical damage to DNA, proteins,

and fats, have been detected in brains of Parkinson’s Disease patients.

Other research suggests that the cell’s protein disposal system may fail

in people with Parkinson’s Disease, causing proteins to build up to

harmful levels and trigger cell death.  Additional studies have found

evidence that clumps of protein that develop inside brain cells of people

with Parkinson’s Disease may contribute to the death of neurons, and

that inflammation or over stimulation of cells (because of toxins or other

Page 9: parkinsons disease

factors) may play a role in the disease.  However, the precise role of the

protein deposits remains unknown.  Some researchers even speculate

that the protein buildup is part of an unsuccessful attempt to protect the

cell. While mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and

many other cellular processes may contribute to Parkinson’s Disease, the

actual cause of the dopamine cell death is still undetermined.

A doctor may diagnose a person with Parkinson’s disease based on the

patient’s symptoms, neurological examinations and medical history. No

blood tests or x-rays can show whether a person has Parkinson’s disease.

However, some kinds of x-rays can help the doctor make sure nothing

else is causing symptoms. If symptoms go away or get better when the

person takes a medicine called levodopa, it’s fairly certain that he or she

has Parkinson’s disease.

The disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately. The  Unified disease rating scale  is the primary clinical tool used to assist in

diagnosis and determine severity of Parkinson’s Disease. Indeed, only

75% of clinical diagnoses of Parkinson’s Disease are confirmed at

autopsy. Early signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease may

sometimes be dismissed as the effects of normal aging. The physician

may need to observe the person for some time until it is apparent that the

symptoms are consistently present. Usually doctors look for shuffling of

feet and lack of swing in the arms. Doctors may sometimes request brain

scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases. However, CT

and MRI brain scans of people with Parkinson’s Disease usually appear


The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale   (UParkinson’s DiseaseRS) is a rating scale used to follow the longitudinal course of

Parkinson’s disease. It is made up of the following sections:

Mentation, behavior, and mood;

Activities of daily living;


Complications of therapy;

Hoehn and Yahr Stage;

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Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson’s DiseaseStage oneSymptoms on one side of the body only. Stage two

Symptoms on both sides of the body.  No impairment of balance.

Stage three

Balance impairment.  Mild to moderate disease.  Physically independent.

 Stage four

Severe disability, but still able to walk or stand unassisted.

Stage five

Wheelchair-bound or bedridden unless assisted.

Prognosis of Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s Disease is not by itself a fatal disease, but it does get worse

with time.   The average life expectancy of a Parkinson’s Disease patient

is generally the same as for people who do not have the disease. 

However, in the late stages of the disease, Parkinson’s Disease may

cause complications such as choking, pneumonia, and falls that can lead

to death.  Fortunately, there are many treatment options available for

people with Parkinson’s Disease.

The progression of symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease may take 20 years

or more.  In some people, however, the disease progresses more quickly. 

There is no way to predict what course the disease will take for an

individual person.

There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. But medicines can help control

the symptoms of the disease. Some of the medicines used to treat

Parkinson’s disease include carbidopa-levodopa (one brand name:

Sinemet), bromocriptine (brand name: Parlodel), selegiline (one brand

name: Eldepryl), pramipexole (brand name: Mirapex), ropinirole (brand

name: Requip), and tolcapone (brand name: Tasmar).

Medications to Treat the Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

Drugs that increase brain levels of dopamineLevodopaDrugs that mimic dopamine (dopamine agonists)ApomorphineBromocriptinePramipexole

Drugs that inhibit dopamine breakdown (COMT inhibitors)EntacaponeTolcaponeDrugs that decrease the action of acetylcholine anticholinergics)<TrihexyphenidylBenztropine

Page 11: parkinsons disease

RopiniroleDrugs that inhibit dopamine breakdown (MAO-B inhibitors)Selegiline (deprenyl)

EthopropazineDrugs with an unknown mechanism of action for Parkinson’s DiseaseAmantadine


The most common drugs used in the treatment are:

L-dopa – It is the most widely used drug but also causes many side effects

because only 1-5% of L-dopa enters dopaminergic neurons rest is

metabolized to dopamine elsewhere.

Initially it causes complaints like:



Reduced blood pressure


Drowsiness and sudden sleep

Later it can complicate the condition even further and can cause:



Younger patients of Parkinson’s suffer more from its side effects as:


Painful ‘off’ dystonias

Tremors intensified

Dyskinesias, or involuntary movements such as twitching, twisting,

and writhing, commonly develop in people who take large doses of

levodopa over an extended period. These movements may be either mild

or severe and either very rapid or very slow. The dose of levodopa is

often reduced in order to lessen these drug-induced movements. 

However, the Parkinson’s Disease symptoms often reappear even with

lower doses of medication. Doctors and patients must work together

closely to find a tolerable balance between the drug’s benefits and side


The period of effectiveness after each dose may begin to shorten, called

the wearing-off effect. Another potential problem is referred to as

the on-off effect — sudden, unpredictable changes in movement, from

normal to Parkinson Ian movement and back again. These effects

probably indicate that the patient’s response to the drug is changing or

Page 12: parkinsons disease

that the disease is progressing.

Dopamine agonists -





Less motor fluctuations

Dyskinesis (twisting / turning) movements

In rare cases, they can cause compulsive behavior, such as an

uncontrollable desire togamble, hyper sexuality, or compulsive shopping.  Bromocriptine can also causefibrosis, or a buildup of fibrous

tissue, in the heart valves or the chest cavity.  Fibrosis usually goes away

once the drugs are stopped.

MAO-B inhibitors. These drugs inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase

B, or MAO-B, which breaks down dopamine in the brain.  MAO-B

inhibitors cause dopamine to accumulate in surviving nerve cells and

reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease.  Selegiline, also called

deprenyl, is an MAO-B inhibitor that is commonly used to treat

Parkinson’s Disease. Studies supported by the NINDS have shown that

selegiline can delay the need for levodopa therapy by up to a year or

more. When selegiline is given with levodopa, it appears to enhance and

prolong the response to levodopa and thus may reduce wearing-off

fluctuations.  Selegiline is usually well-tolerated, although side effects

may include nausea, orthostatic hypotension, stomatitis or insomnia.  It should not be taken with the antidepressant

fluoxetine or the sedative mepiridine, because combining seligiline with

these drugs can be harmful.

COMT inhibitors.  COMT stands for catechol-O-methyltransferase,

another enzyme that helps to break down dopamine.  Two COMT

inhibitors are approved to treat Parkinson’s Disease in the United

States:  entacapone and tolcapone.  These drugs prolong the effects of

levodopa by preventing the breakdown of dopamine. COMT inhibitors can

decrease the duration of “off” periods, and they usually make it possible

to reduce the person’s dose of levodopa.  The most common side effect is diarrhea.  The drugs may also cause nausea, sleep disturbances, dizziness, urine discoloration, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, or hallucinations.  In a few rare cases,

tolcapone has caused severe liver disease.  Because of this, patients

taking tolcapone need regular monitoring of their liver function.

Page 13: parkinsons disease

Amantadine. An antiviral drug, amantadine, can help reduce symptoms

of Parkinson’s Disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia.  It is often used

alone in the early stages of the disease.  It also may be used with an

anticholinergic drug or levodopa.  After several months, amantadine’s

effectiveness wears off in up to half of the patients taking it.

Amantadine’s side effects may include insomnia, mottled skin, edema, agitation, or hallucinations. Researchers are not certain

how amantadine works in Parkinson’s Disease, but it may increase the

effects of dopamine.

Anticholinergics. These drugs, which include trihexyphenidyl,

benztropine, and ethopropazine, decrease the activity of the

neurotransmitter acetylcholine and help to reduce tremors and muscle

rigidity.  Only about half the patients who receive anticholinergics are

helped by it, usually for a brief period and with only a 30 percent

improvement.  Side effects may include dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, hallucinations, memory loss, blurred vision, and confusion.

Homeopathy treats the person as a whole. It means that homeopathic

treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological

condition. The homeopathic medicines are selected after a full

individualizing examination and case-analysis, which includes the medical

history of the patient, physical and mental constitution etc. A miasmatic

tendency (predisposition/susceptability) is also often taken into account

for the treatment of chronic conditions. The medicines given below

indicate the therapeutic affinity but this is not a complete and definite

guide to the treatment of this condition. The symptoms listed against

each medicine may not be directly related to this disease because in

homeopathy general symptoms and constitutional indications are also

taken into account for selecting a remedy. To study any of the following

remedies in more detail, please visit our Materia Medica section. None of these medicines should be taken without professional advice.Reportorial rubric:

Murphy: Diseases: Paralysis-agitans.

Clarke: Paralysis agitans.

Boericke: Nervous system: Paralysis-Type – agitans

Agar., Am Gr.,  Arg-n., Aur., Bufo.,Cocc.,  Con., Gels., Helo.,

Hyos. ,Lathyr.,  Mag-p., MERC., Nux-v., Phos., Plb., Puls., RHUS-T.,

Stam., Tarent., Thuj., ZINC.,.

Page 14: parkinsons disease


Weakness of limbs, trembling of extremities, especially hands. Paralytic

agitans. Lacerating pain in joints. Cold and clammy sweat on limbs. Oily perspiration.Tremors everywhere in body. Weakness with

trembling from least exertion. All symptoms are aggravated at night,

warmth of bed, Damp, cold, rainy weather and during

perspiration. Complaints increase during sweating and rest. All

symptoms always associated with weariness, prostration and trembling.

Slow in answering questions. Memory weakened and loss of will power.

Skin alwaysmoist and freely perspiring. Itching worse warmth of bed.

Zincum-MetallicumViolent trembling (twitching) of the whole body especially after

emotions. Twitching in children. Chorea.  Paralysis of hands and feet.

Trembling of hands while writing. Lameness, weakness, trembling and

twitching of various muscles. Feet in continued motion, cannot keep still. Worse touch, between 5-7 pm., after dinner, better eating,


Rhus-toxWhen the tremors start with pain which is relieved by motion. There

is stiffness of the parts affected. Numbness and formication, after

overwork and exposure. Paralysis; trembling after exertion. Limbs

stiff and paralysed.All joints hot and painful. Crawling and tingling

sensation in the tips of fingers. Worse during sleep, cold, wet rainy

weather and after rain, night, during rest, drenching and when lying on

back or right side. Better warm, dry weather, motion, walking, change of

position, rubbing, stretching out limbs.


Centers its action on nervous system, causing various degrees of motor

paralysis…Dizziness, drowsiness, dullness and trembling are the

hallmark of this remedy. Trembling ranks the highest in this remedy,

weakness and paralysis, especially of the muscles of the head. Paralysis

of various groups of muscles like eyes, throat, chest, sphincters and

extremities. Head remedy for tremors. Mind sluggish and muscular

system relaxed. Staggering gait. Loss of power of muscular control.

Cramps in muscles of forearm. Excessive trembling and weakness of all

limbs. Worse by dampness, excitement, bad news. Better by bending

forwards, profuse urination, continued motion and open air.

Argentum Nitricum

It is complimentary to Gelsemium. Memory impaired; easily excited and

Page 15: parkinsons disease

angered; flatulence and greenish diarrhea.Inco-ordination, loss of control

and imbalance with trembling and general debility. Paralysis with mental and abdominal symptoms. Rigidity of calves. Walks and

stands unsteadily. Numbness of body. Specially arms.

Agaricus Muscarius

Trembling, itching and jerking, stiffness of muscles; itching of skin over

the affected parts and extreme sensitiveness of the spine. Cannot bear touch. Jerking and trembling are strong indications. Chorea and

twitching ceases during sleep. Paralysis of lower limbs with spasmodic

conditions of arms. Numbness of legs on crossing them. Paralytic pain

in left arm followed by palpitation. Stiffness all over with pain over hips.

CocculusHead trembles while eating and when it is raised higher. Knees sink

down from weakness. Totters while walking with tendency to fall on one

side. Cracking of the knee when moving. Lameness worse by bending. Trembling and pain in limbs. One-sided paralysis worse after sleep. Intensely painful, paralytic drawing. Limbs straightened out

and painful when flexed.

It shows special affinity for light haired females especially during



Tremors of the upper extremities with paralytic weakness of the lower

limbs. Feels as if limbs are hard and contracted; limbs feel heavy. Feels

as if floor is irregular and is obliged to keep his eyes on the ground to

guide his feet. Affects the lateral and anterior columns of cord. Does not produce pain. Reflexes always increased. Lateral sclerosis

and Infantile paralysis. Finger tips numb. Tremulous, tottering gait. Excessive rigidity of legs with spastic gait. Knees knock against

each other while walking. Cannot extend or cross legs when siting.Stiff

and lame ankles.

PhysostigmaMarked fibrillary tremors and spasms of the muscles, worse from motion or application of cold water. Palpitation and fluttering of the heart felt throughout the body. Depresses the motor and

reflex activity of the cord and causes the loss of sensibility to pain,

muscle weakness and paralysis.  Paralysis and tremors, chorea.

Meningeal irritation with rigidity of muscles. Pain in right popliteal

space. Burning and tingling in spine. Hands and feet numb with sudden

jerking of limbs on going to sleep. Crampy pain in limbs.

Page 16: parkinsons disease

Ambra GriseaTremors with numbness, limbs go to sleep on the slightest movement, coldness and stiffness of limbs. The finger nails

become brittle and are shriveled. Cramps in hands and fingers. Worse

grasping anything. Cramps in legs. Extreme nervous hypersensitiveness.

Dread of people and desire to be alone. Music causes weeping. One sided complains call for it.Heloderma

Trembling along nerves in limbs. Tired feeling, very weak and nervous,

fainting, numb sensation. It causes locomotor ataxia. The eyes become

more prominent and corneal opacities visible. Very depressed and

sensation as if would fall on right side. Sensationas if walking on sponge. As if the feet were swollen. When walking, lifts feet higher

than usual and puts down heel hard. Stretching relieves pains in muscles and limbs.Mag-phos

Trembling; shaking of hands, involuntary. Paralysis agitans. Cramps in

calves, feet very tender. Twitching, Chorea, cramps. Numbness of finger

tips. Worse right side, cold, touch, night. Better warmth, bending double,

pressure and friction.

Bufo Rana

Special action on nervous system. Painful paralysis. Pain in loins,

numbness and cramps. Staggering gait. Feels as if a peg is driven into

joints. Worse—Warm room. Better bathing or cold air. Putting feet in cold



Remarkable nervous phenomena. Chorea, extreme restlessness and

Paralysis agitans.Must keep in constant motion even though walking aggravates. Numbness of legs with twitching and

jerkings.Extraordinary contractions and movements.

Plumbum Metalicum

Paralytic agitans. Paralysis of single muscles. Cannot raise or lift

anything. Extension is difficult. Paralysis from over-exertion of extensor muscles in piano players. Wrist drop. Loss of patellar reflex. Pain in

right big toe at night. Hands and feet cold. Infantile paralysis and



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Heavy, weary and paralyzed limbs. Trembling and unsteady hands.

Muscular weakness especially of lower extremities. Perspiration of

hands. Putting feet on chair relieves.Ascending paralysis ending in

death by failure of respiration. Worse by lying down, turning or rising in

bed, cold, exertion. Better by darkness, limbs hanging down, motion,



Page 18: parkinsons disease