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Organ donation 2013

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Page 1: Organ donation 2013
Page 2: Organ donation 2013

Organ Donation

What is Organ donation

Organ donation is the process of removing tissues or organs from a live, or recently dead, person to be used in another.

The former is the donor and the latter is the recipient.

People of all ages can become donors.

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Organ Donation

Type of donors

Some organs can be donated by a living person

Almost all organs can be donated by someone dead but this has to reach the recipient within a few hours after the donor's death.

In case of live donation the donor should give his consent .

In case of cadaver donation, relatives need to provide consent.

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Organ Donation

Voluntary Donation

Almost everywhere organ donation is voluntary

Two voluntary systems include –

1.Opt In - Where the donor gives consent

2.Opt Out - Where anyone who has not refused is considered as a donor

In India we have the Opt in system, while many western countries practice the opt out system

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Organ Donation

Organs for Donation

Some of the organs that are commonly donated -

• Kidneys

• Eyes (cornea)

• Heart

• Lungs

• Liver

• Pancreas

• Skin

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Why is Organ Donation important?

-There are more than 250,000 patients who would benefit from

an organ transplant.-Organ transplants come from Cadaveric donors and by Living

donors.However, the issue that exists is a

Supply & Demand Problem.

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There is no national registry of organ donors.

Even if you have indicated your wishes on your driver’s license or a donor card, be sure you have told your family as they will be consulted before donation takes place.

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How does one express voluntary donation wishes? Registries Donor cards Advance directives aka, Living

Wills Sharing your thoughts and

decisions with your family

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1987Florida Brain Death Law

Brain death is the irreversible cessation of the entire brain, including brain stem

Determination of death must be made by two board eligible or certified physicians

Brain death is the irreversible cessation of the function of the entire brain, including brain stem.

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Acceptable Donors

Severe Head Injuries Cerebral Insults

(SAH,SDH,CVA) Primary Brain Tumors Cerebral Anoxia (Near-

drowning, Drug ODs,MIs,) Homicides/Suicides Metabolic Disorders (DKA)

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Brain Death

Patient maintained on ventilator, Heart beating

Organs are removed in the operating room while the patient is maintained on a ventilator.

Tissue recovery follows organ donation

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Cardiac Death

Patient has no cardiac or respiratory activity

Acceptable donations: Tissue & Eyes

Body must be kept cool before tissues are removed

Removal within12 to 24 hours

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What’s the difference from a coma?

Coma entails some lower level of brain electrical activity, however absence of any cortical activity

Coma does NOT equal Brain Death

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Organ Donation

Organ shortage - reasons

Family consent, and negative attitude contribute towards organ shortage.

This could be due to the following reasons -

• Religion

• Fear, ignorance and misunderstanding

• Legal aspects

• Media reports on scandals involving organ rackets

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The emotional upheaval of death is the most difficult

the notion of organ donation by the relatives can be understandably very difficult.

But if the body is to be buried/ cremated the organs can be donated; give a patient with organ failure, a second chance in life.

……Most people donate the belongings of their loved ones after their death

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In our country since the law was passed in 1995, we have managed to do over 900 organs like kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and pancreas transplants.

In the USA approx. 25,000 transplants of various organs are under taken every year and approx. 85% of organs come from brain dead or cadaver patients.

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The organ donation rate from dead bodies in India is estimated to be a minuscule 0.05 per million people (although India has among the world's highest number of deaths from road accidents).

Hong Kong's organ donation rate is less than 5 per million, while

It's 25 per million in the United States.

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In 1998, India had 1 per cent of the world's road vehicles and 6 per cent of the world's road accidents. These accidents have increased to 10 per cent in 2006.

The total number of road accidents is approximately 90,000 per year.

By estimates about 245 Indians die in road accidents every day and 15-20 per cent of those people are left `brain dead'.

Other causes of brain death such as sub-arachnoid' hemorrhage and brain tumors would potentially add more numbers.

Even if 5 per cent to 10 per cent of all these deceased patients donate their organs, then a living person won't have to donate organs.

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In India every year there is a need of approximately 175,000 kidneys; 50000 hearts and 50000 livers for transplantation.

As against the need, only 8000 kidney transplants in approx slightly more than 200 centers, 1100 liver transplants in about 25 centers and 20-25 hearts in very few centers are done annually.

As many as 95 per cent kidneys and livers are from living donors.

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Organ Donation

Improving Organ Donation

Currently organ donation can be termed as a "crisis with a cure." The following are some ways to improve organ donation-

• Improved patient care to facilitate easier approach for organ donation, in case of patient death

• Trained transplant co-ordinators and grief counsellors

• Improved hospital infrastructure

• Qualified Intensivists and Surgeons

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Organ Donation

Improving Organ Donation

Currently organ donation can be termed as a "crisis with a cure." The following are some ways to improve organ donation-

• Increased HLA typing and cross matching facilities

• Improved facilities in packing,transport and retrieval of organs

• Supporting organization for networking and registry maintenance

• Effective use of technology to facilitate organ donation

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Organ Donation

Role of society

Society plays a crucial role in transplant programme especially in case of cadaver transplants.

There is a urgent need for increased public awareness regarding organ donation and greater effort must be taken to dispel public concerns regarding the same.

Organ donation can give a new twist to tragedy. Remember "organs wasted are lives lost".

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Liver Transplant Recipient

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Liver, stomach, pancreas,small bowel and piece of colon recipient

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Liver and small bowelrecipient

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Oneisha and Missick

Liver Transplant Recipients

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