Muscles And Bones

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    07-May-2015

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A little bit deeper look at muscles and bones.

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<ul><li>1.Chapter 13 Muscle and Bone Injuries By: Ryan and Connor</li></ul> <p>2. Introduction </p> <ul><li>Themusculoskeletal systemis made up ofmuscles ,tendonsandligaments , and bones that form the skeleton.</li></ul> <ul><li>Theyprovidethe body withshape ,form ,stability , andmovement . </li></ul> <p>3. Goals/Objectives </p> <ul><li>Gain fundamental knowledge of anatomy and function of musculoskeletal system</li></ul> <ul><li>Identify/treat open and closed wounds, as well as painful,swollen, and deformed extremities </li></ul> <p>4. Key Terms</p> <ul><li>Bone : A dense, hard tissue that forms the skeleton. Dislocation : The displacement of a bone from its normal position at ajoint. Fracture : A break or disruption in bone tissue. Immobilize : To use a splint or other method to keep an injured bodypart from moving. Joint : A structure where two or more bones are joined. Ligament : A barbarous band that holds bones together at a joint. Muscle: A tissue that lengthens and shortens to createmovement. Painful, swollen, deformed extremities (PSDextremity): All injuries to the extremities caused by a force. Skeletal muscles : Muscles that attach to bones. Splint : a device used to immobilize body parts. Sprain : The excessive stretching and tearing of ligaments and othersoft tissue structures at a joint. Strain : The excessive stretching and tearing of muscles and tendons. Tendon : A fibrous band that attaches muscle to bone. </li></ul> <p>5. Injuries to Bones and Joints</p> <ul><li>Mechanism of Injury</li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>There are three basic types</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Direct force </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Indirect force</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Twisting Force</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>6. Signs and Symptoms</p> <ul><li>Common signs and symptoms associated with musculoskeletal injuries: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Pain and tenderness </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Grating </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Deformity</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Bruising (dislocation) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Exposed bone ends </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Joint locked into position </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Inability to move an affected part </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>7. </p> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>8. </p> <ul><li><ul><li>Deformity </li></ul></li></ul> <p>9. </p> <ul><li>Bruising </li></ul> <p>10. General Care for Bone and Joint Injuries</p> <ul><li>Rememberproper protectionandBSI </li></ul> <ul><li>Assess ABCsand life-threatening conditions first </li></ul> <ul><li>Summon moreadvanced medical personnel</li></ul> <p>11. General care for all skeletal injuries</p> <ul><li>RICE </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Rest : avoiding movement and activities that cause pain </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ice : Apply ice or a cold pack - reduces swelling and eases pain anddiscomfort </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Compression </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Elevation : raise injured are above heart level to restrict blood flow </li></ul></li></ul> <p>12. Immobilization</p> <ul><li>Serious skeletal injuriesrequire immediate immobilization . Thislessens pain ,prevents further damage ,reduces riskof seriousbleeding , reduces the possibility ofloss of circulationto the injured part,prevents PSD extremity injuries . </li></ul> <ul><li>Immobilize an injured area with asplint , a device that maintains an injuredpart in place.</li></ul> <p>13. Splinting</p> <ul><li>Splint only if it can be done without causing further pain. </li></ul> <ul><li>Splint an injury in the position you find it. </li></ul> <ul><li>Splint the injured area and the joints above and below the injury site. </li></ul> <ul><li>Check for proper circulation and sensation prior to splinting. </li></ul> <p>14. Types of Splints </p> <ul><li>Sling : (made from a triangular bandage)tied to support an arm, wrist, or hand </li></ul> <ul><li>Cravat : folded triangular bandage used tohold dressings or splints in place </li></ul> <ul><li>Rigid splints : include boards, metal strips,and folded plastic or cardboard splints </li></ul> <ul><li>Anatomic splints : refer to the use of thebody as a splint </li></ul> <p>15. Shoulder Injuries</p> <ul><li>-The most frequent injured bone of the shoulder is the clavicle (more so in children than in adults). -Injuries to the shoulder are commonly caused by a fall. -The victim usually feels pain in the shoulder area and it may radiate down the upper arm. -Dislocations also usually result from falls and cause ligaments to tear. -They cause intense pain and usually deformities. -To care for shoulder injuries, first control external bleeding with direct pressure. Splint the shoulder in the position it was found in or which causes the least pain. Check circulation and sensation. </li></ul> <p>16. Upper Arm Injuries</p> <ul><li>-The humerus can be fractured at any point, but is usually at the upper end or in the middle of the bone. Regardless, there will be a danger ofdamage to the blood vessels and nerves supplying the entire arm. -To care for upper arm injuries, immobilize the upper arm from the shoulder to the elbow. Control external bleeding with direct pressure. Splint arm to the chest and apply cold if possible. Check circulation andsensation. </li></ul> <p>17. Elbow Injuries</p> <ul><li>-Like other joints, the elbow is susceptible to sprains, fractures, and dislocations. All are serious because all nerves and blood vessels go through the elbow. -To care for an elbow injury, immobilize elbow in position you find it in. Control external bleeding with direct pressure. Place the arm in a slingand secure it to chest (if possible, use two cravats). The splint should extend several inches beyond the upper arm and the wrist. Check circulation and sensation. </li></ul> <p>18. Forearm, Wrist, and Hand Injuries</p> <ul><li>Fractures often occur to the radius and ulna as a result of a fall. </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Hands are especially susceptible to tissue and nerve damage, as well asblood vessels and bones. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>To care for these injuries, first control external bleeding with direct pressure. Bandage hand by applying a pressure bandage in a figure- eightpattern. Support wrist by placing a splint under forearm. Immobilize fingers with soft splints or a roll of gauze. Check circulation andsensation. </li></ul></li></ul> <p>19. Ankle and Foot Injuries </p> <ul><li>-Injuries to this area are commonly caused by twisting forces and range from minor sprains to fractures an dislocations. To care for ankle and foot injuries, first control external bleeding with direct pressure. Splint by using an air splint, soft splint, or a custom one designed for such injuries. Apply ice or a cold pack. Monitor ABCs aswell as sensation and mobility of injured area. Summon more advancedmedical personnel. </li></ul>