(HBOT) Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
(HBOT) Hyper Baric Oxygen TherapyDr Faeyz F Orabi MD, PM&R
History of HBOTWhat is HBOT?How HBOT Works?Trends in Hyperbaric Medicine
(HBOT) Hyper Baric Oxygen Therapy
History of Hyperbaric Therapy
British physician, Henshaw, in 1662 used a chamber fitted with a large pair of organ bellows, so that air could either be compressed into the chamber or extracted from it. In this domicilium' increased pressures were used for the treatment of acute disease, and reduced pressures for the treatment of chronic diseases. Oxygen discovered in 1775
1889 Moir used hyperbaric therapy to treat workers building railroad tunnels underneath the Hudson River. Reduced mortality rate of decompression sickness from 25% to only 1.6% per year.1926 - Six-story steel ball hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. The facility was capable of treating patients in 72 rooms over 12 floors at pressures of 3 atm absolute.
..No oxygen? Brain damage in 3-4 minutes...No vitamin C? Scurvy in 3-4 months...No vitamin D? Osteoporosis in 3-4 years.We can supplement vitamins and minerals, butHow do you get more Oxygen?????
The brain makes up 2% of body weight but uses 20% of body oxygenRoom Air 160 mmHgLung Capillaries 100 mmHgLeaving Heart 85 mmHgPeripheral Arterioles 70 mmHgOrgan Capillaries 50 mmHgCells 1-10 mmHgMitochondria 0.5 mmHg(0.3% of inhaled oxygen)Mitochondria is the final site of energy production
Breathing more oxygen not enough. Room air contains 21% oxygen, enough to fill most of the oxygen-binding sites on our red blood cells, carried by hemoglobin. Breathing even 100% oxygen Fills the few remaining sites on hemoglobin. Increases blood oxygen by a small percentage. Can be life-saving, especially if blood oxygen levels are low, but results in minimal gains when O2 levels start out normal. Encourage oxygen to dissolve in serum and plasma by increasing pressure of oxygen.Pressure is provided by a chamber with above-normal pressure, called a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. Patient enters chamber and pressure is slowly increased to a level appropriate for the persons condition.How To Get More Oxygen?
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy(HBO)Involves intermittently breathing pure oxygen at greater than ambient pressureThink of oxygen as a drug and the hyperbaric chamber as a dosing deviceElevating tissue oxygen tension is the primary effect
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the inhalation of 100 percent oxygen inside a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized to greater than 1 atmosphere (atm). HBOT causes both mechanical and physiologic effects by inducing a state of increased pressure and hyperoxia. HBOT is typically administered at 1 to 3 atm. While the duration of an HBOT session is typically 90 to 120 minutes, the duration, frequency, and cumulative number of sessions have not been standardized.What is HBOT?
What is HBOT?How HBOT Works?Trends in Hyperbaric Medicine
(HBOT) Hyper Baric Oxygen Therapy
Basic MechanismsBoyles Law pressure and volume inversely proportional under constant temperatureBy increasing ambient pressure to 2 atm, decreases the volume by Therapeutic for bubble forming diseases such as decompression sickness or arterial gas embolismHenrys Law at a given temperature, the amount of gas dissolved in solute is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.By increasing ambient pressure, more oxygen can be dissolved in the plasma
Solubilty of Gas (equilibirium concentation): C = KH Pgas
Pressurized OxygenCapillary PressureOxygen Pressure Oxygen %50 mm Hg pO2Normal Air 75 mm Hg pO21 Atmos. 100% O2 246 mm Hg pO21.3 Atmos. 100% O2 437.5 mm Hg pO21.5 Atmos. 100% O2
What does this have in common?
Hypoxia generates signal to commence wound healing cascade Hyperbaric Oxygen environment augments the signal Action HBOT acts as a signal transducer.
Recent studies suggest low oxygen state after a stroke, cerebral palsy, autism, or chronic viral infections. Some of the cells around the area of injury are still alive - not sufficient oxygen to function well. Not dead, but too little oxygen to do their jobs. Thousands of people are affected every year by an event or condition that causes some body tissues to live in a perpetually-low oxygen state. Can be improved with acceptable blood flow, oxygen saturation.Limb reattachmentRadiation therapyHead injurySurgical woundSkin graft Plastic surgerySevere burnsCarbon-monoxide poisoning
The macrophage is sensitive to variations in levels of oxygen present in the tissues; sensitive to an oxygen gradientPersistent Hypoxia signal results in an attempt , by local tissues to build new blood supply to the affected area.This is how tissues communicate to other neighboring structures, the need for routine tissue repair to commence.
Note that although there may be insufficient stimulus to initiate the tissue repair cascade under normal conditions, by increasing the local oxygen delivery the oxygen gradient is magnified .resulting in a stronger signal and augmented repair.
Uses Certain non-healing wounds (post-surgical or diabetic) Radiation soft tissue necrosis and radiation osteonecrosis Necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating bacteria) Carbon monoxide poisoning Decompression sickness Air or gas embolism
Acute arterial ischemia (crush injury, compartment syndrome, etc.) Compromised skin grafts or flaps Severe infection by anaerobic bacteria (such as gas gangrene) Severe uncorrected anemia when blood transfusion is not available (e.g., in a Jehovah's Witness) Chronic refractory Osteomyelitis
HBOT and Medicare An HBOT session costs anywhere from $100 to $300 in private clinics, to over $1,000 in hospitals. More U.S. physicians are lawfully prescribing HBOT for "off label" conditions such as Lyme Disease and stroke. Such patients are treated in outpatient clinics, however it is unlikely that their medical insurance will pay for off label treatments.
ControversialHBOT is controversial and health policy regarding its uses is politically charged. Both sides of the controversy on the effectiveness of HBOT is available in the form of PUBMED and the Cochrane reviews, a discussion of Multiple Sclerosis in particular.
Mechanism and EffectsHyper-oxygenation Greater oxygen carrying capacity Increased oxygen diffusion in tissue fluid Diffusion distance proportional to the square root of dissolved oxygenSevere blood loss anemia (unable to carry oxygen) Crush injury, compartment syndrome graft, and flap salvage (decreased perfusion)
Mechanism and Effects
Edema (increased diffusion barrier)Decrease gas bubble sizeBoyle law - Gas volume inversely proportional to pressure Hyperbaric diffusion gradient favors gas leaving the bubble and oxygen moving in, metabolizing oxygen in the bubble Decompression sickness Air embolus syndrome
Secondary EffectsVasoconstrictionDecreased inflow into tissues Decreased edemaIncreased oxygen gradient between wound and surrounding environment Increased fibroblast proliferation leading to increased collagen deposition and increased fibronectin, which aids in neovascularization
Additional EffectsLeukocyte oxidative killingIncreased oxygen free radicals Anaerobes lack superoxide dismutase to control oxygen free radicals (Necrotizing soft-tissue infections) Toxin inhibitionDecreased clostridial alpha toxins (gas gangrene) Decreased cardio toxinsAntibiotic synergy
Mechanism of actionAngiogenesis in ischemic tissuesBacteriostatic/bactericidal actionsCarboxyhemoglobin dissociation hastenedClostridium perfringens alpha toxin synthesis inhibitedVasoconstrictionTemporary inhibition of neutrophil Beta 2 integrin adhesion
Published clinical studies describing results from treating stroke patients with hyperbaric oxygen, performed at 11 different hyperbaric centers, were analyzed for benefit (a total of 265 patients). The cumulative amount of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (DHBOT) was calculated by multiplying chamber oxygen pressure (ATA) times the duration of each HBOT (in hours), times the total number of hyperbaric treatments. Efficacy of HBOT (EfHBOT) was computed from the number of patients in each study who showed significant clinical improvement of their neurologic status as a result of HBOT (percentage of the total number of patients who improved). The amount of benefit was compared with the total amount of HBOT. Analysis showed that benefit increased progressively as more treatments were given, as graphically depicted below.Research Report of Hyperbaric Oxygen Benefit for Stroke Victims
From the graphic plot above it can be seen that average improvement increased with each treatment and that 30 one-hour HBOT treatments resulted in progressive benefit. For many patients that benefit continued to increase with additional therapy and 30 treatments is not usually considered adequate for full benefit.
Migraine and cluster headaches are severe and disabling. Both hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and normal pressure oxygen therapy (NBOT) have been suggested as effective treatments to end acute attacks and prevent future attacks. HBOT involves people breathing pure oxygen in a specially designed chamber. In our review, we found some weak evidence to suggest that HBOT helps people with acute migraine headaches and possibly cluster headaches, and that NBOT may help people with cluster headache. We found no evidence that either can prevent future attacks. Because many migraines can be treated simply with appropriate drug therapy, further research is needed to help choose the most appropriate patients (if any) to receive HBOT.
Normal pressure oxygen therapy and h