Drug Discovery New Drug Development Process

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  • A substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease or as a component of a medication recognized or defined by the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
  • Adrugis any chemical or biological substance, synthetic or non-synthetic


  • A drug is anything that affects the way an organism works.
  • Drugs can be taken to enhance function, such as a student drinking caffeine to enhance alertness.
  • For now we only consider drugs which are used to cure a disease.

Continued 4.

  • A disease is often thought of as an infection, where a bacteria, virus, or other living thing invades the body.
  • However, a disease is anything which affects the proper functioning of the body.
  • It can be an infection, a genetic disorder, or the result of environmental conditions such as malnourishment, poisoning, or stress.

Continued 5.

  • Engineers often find it easy to see the body as a factory.
  • Individual organs can be seen as machinery. The actual nuts, bolts, screwdrivers, and wrenches that make up all the machinery are the equivalent of proteins, little chunks of organic material that move things around in the body and attach them together.
  • Most of the work in our body is done by proteins.

Continued 6.

  • The body contains thousands of different kinds of proteins.
  • The construction of each is determined by the DNA in the nucleus of each cell.
  • DNA may be thought of as long strings of instructions which code for how each protein is too be built.
  • The DNA is just a long string of acids that serves as a message about how to make proteins.

7. How Drugs are Developed

  • The processes of new drug discovery and development are long, complicated and dependent upon the expertise of a wide variety of scientific, technical and managerial groups.
  • If you are new to the industry, it can prove a significant challenge to understand the significance of your contribution, even if you belong to one of the teams directly involved; for those on the periphery, the problem is magnified to the point where team interactions and efficiency are adversely threatened.

8. Differences and Similarities of Drugs and Medicinal Plants

  • Today there are at least 120 distinct chemical substances derived from plants that are considered important drug and are currently in use in one or more countries in the world
  • Some of these drugs are simply a chemical or chemicals extracted from plant materials and put into a capsule, tablet or liquid.
  • Eg. In Germany aCynarindrug is manufacturedand sold to treat hypertension, liver disorders and highly cholesterol levels.

9. Differences and Similarities of Drugs and Medicinal Plants

  • The drug is simply this single chemical or an Artichoke liquid extract, that has been concentrated and chemically manipulated to contain a specific amount of this one chemical ; such a preparation is called a standardized extract.
  • However in the U.S artichoke extracts are available as natural products and sold in health food stores as dietary supplements
  • Some U.S artichoke products are even standardized to contain a specific amount of cynarin, yet they can still be purchased here as a natural product without a prescription.
  • There may be little to no difference between the Cynarin drug produce in Germany and the artichoke standardized herbal supplements made in the U.S considering that the same amount of Cynarin is being delivered, dose for dose

10. Need for consumer education about Herbal supplements & Drugs

  • Consumers find it very frustrating to sort through a lot of ambiguous information put out by natural product manufacturers who cannot legally label their goods with condition-specific.
  • Stop them in their tracks in the aisles at the health food store saying Hey, look at me, if you have high cholesterol.

11. More is Not Always Better

  • Be careful about dosage amounts
  • Philosophy of excess: if some is good, more is better

12. Problem of One Vs Several Chemicals

  • While many drugs have originated from biologically active plant chemicals, and many plants, medicine uses can be attributed to various active chemicals found in them, there is a distinct difference between using a medicinal plant and a chemical drug.
  • The difference is one that scares most conventionally trained doctors with no training in plants.
  • Drugs usually consist of a single chemical, whereas medicinal plants can contain 400 or more chemicals.
  • Its relatively easy to figure out the activity and side effects of a single chemical.

13. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Anisodus tanguticus Anticholinergic Anisodamine Andrographis paniculata Baccillary dysentery Andrographolide Anabasis sphylla Skeletal muscle relaxant Anabesine Brassica nigra Rubefacient Allyl isothiocyanate Several plants Vulnerary Allantoin Rauvolfia sepentina Circulatory Disorders Ajmalicine Agrimonia supatoria Anthelmintic Agrimophol Frazinus rhychophylla Anti-dysentery Aesculetin Aesculus hippocastanum Anti-inflammatory Aescin Adonis vernalis Cardiotonic Adoniside Digitalis lanata Cardiotonic Acetyldigoxin Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 14. Plant Based Drugs and MedicinesCamellia sinensis CNS stimulant Caffeine Ananas comosus Anti-inflammatory, proteolytic Bromelain Several plants Antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory Borneol Betula alba Anticancerous Betulinicacid Ardisia japonica Antitussive Bergenin Berberis vulgaris Bacillary dysentery Berberine Several plants Scabicide Benzyl benzoate Atropa belladonna Anticholinergic Atropine Centella asiatica Vulnerary Asiaticoside Areca catechu Anthelmintic Arecoline Anisodus tanguticus Anticholinergic Anisodine Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 15. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Curcumalonga Choleretic Curcumin Convallaria majalis Cardiotonic Convallatoxin Colchicumautumnale Antitumor agent, anti-gout Colchicine Colchicumautumnale Antitumor agent Colchiceineamide Papaver somniferum Analgesic, antitussive Codeine Erythroxylum coca Local anaesthetic Cocaine Cissampelos pareira Skeletal muscle relaxant Cissampeline Caricapapaya Proteolytic, mucolytic Chymopapain Potentilla fragarioides Haemostatic (+)-Catechin Camptotheca acuminata Anticancerous Camptothecin Cinnamomum camphora Rubefacient Camphor Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 16. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Ephedrine Cephaelis ipecacuanha Amoebicide, emetic Emetine Digitalis purpurea Cardiotonic Digoxin Digitalis purpurea Cardiotonic Digitoxin Digitalis purpurea Cardiotonic Digitalin Mucunasp Anti-parkinsonism L-Dopa Digitalis lanata Cardiotonic Deslanoside Rauvolfia canescens Antihypertensive, tranquillizer Deserpidine Colchicum autumnale Antitumor agent Demecolcine Cassia species Laxative Danthron Cynara scolymus Choleretic Cynarin Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 17. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Citrus species Capillary fragility Hesperidin Hemsleya amabilis Bacillary dysentery Hemsleyadin Gossypium species Male contraceptive Gossypol Glycyrrhiza glabra Sweetener, Addison's disease Glycyrrhizin Octea glaziovii Antidepressant Glasiovine Glaucium flavum Antitussive Glaucine Simarouba glauca Amoebicide Glaucarubin Digitalis purpurea Cardiotonic Gitalin Lycoris squamigera Cholinesterase inhibitor Galanthamine Podophyllum peltatum Antitumor agent Etoposide Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 18. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Gaultheria procumbens Rubefacient Methyl salicylate Menthaspecies Rubefacient Menthol Lobelia inflata Smoking deterrant, respiratory stimulant a-LobelineTabebuiasp. Anticancer, antitumor Lapachol Digitalis lanata Cardiotonic Lanatosides A, B, C Ammi visaga Bronchodilator Kheltin Piper methysticum Tranquillizer Kawain Digenea simplex Ascaricide Kaibic acud Camptotheca acuminata Anticancer, antitumor agent Irinotecan Hyoscyamus niger Anticholinergic Hyoscyamine Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 19. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Caricapapaya Proteolytic, mucolytic Papain Coptis japonica Antipyretic, detoxicant Palmatine Sophora pschycarpa Oxytocic Pachycarpine Strophanthus gratus Cardiotonic Ouabain Papaver somniferum Antitussive Noscapine Larrea divaricata Antioxidant Nordihydroguaiaretic acid Nicotiana tabacum Insecticide Nicotine Andrographis paniculata Dysentery Neoandrographolide Papaver somniferum Analgesic Morphine Crotalaria sessiliflora Antitumor agent (topical) Monocrotaline Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 20. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Cinchonaledgeriana Antiarrhythmic Quinidine Ephedra sinica Sympathomimetic Pseudoephedrine, nor-Ephedra sinica Sympathomimetic Pseudoephredrine* Veratrum album Antihypertensives Protoveratrines A, B Podophyllum peltatum Antitumor anticancer agent Podophyllotoxin Several plants Expectorant Pinitol Pilocarpusjaborandi Parasympathomimetic Pilocarpine Anamirta cocculus Analeptic Picrotoxin Physostigma venenosum Cholinesterase Inhibitor Physostigmine Hydrangea macrophylla Sweetner Phyllodulcin Plant Source Action/Clinical Use Drug/Chemical 21. Plant Based Drugs and Medicines Citrus species Capillary fragility Rutin Stephania sinica Analagesic, sedative, tra