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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Diabetes Treatment

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What is chronic kidney disease?

What is chronic kidney disease?

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time. To read more about kidney function, see How Your Kidneys Work.

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What are the causes of chronic renal failure?Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. you may not notice any symptoms for some time. The loss of function may be so slow that you do not have symptoms until your kidneys have almost stopped working. The final stage of chronic kidney disease is called end-stage renal disease

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CKD is also known as chronic renal disease.

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Stage 1 of Chronic Kidney DiseaseA person with stage 1chronic kidney disease (CKD)has kidney damage with aGlomerular Filtration rate (GFR)at a normal or high level greater than 90 ml/min. There are usually no symptoms to indicate the kidneys are damaged. Because kidneys do a good job even when theyre not functioning at 100 percent, most people will not know they have stage 1 CKD. If they do find out theyre in stage 1, its usually because they were being tested for another condition such asdiabetes orhigh blood pressure(the two leading causes of kidney disease)

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Other ways a person may discover they are in stage 1 CKD include:Higher than normal levels ofCreatinine or urea in the blood

Blood or protein in the urine

Evidence of kidney damage in an MRI, CT scan, ultrasound or contrast X-rayA family history ofpolycystic kidney disease (PKD)

Symptoms of stage 1 kidney disease

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Stage 2 of Chronic Kidney DiseaseA person with stage 2chronic kidney disease (CKD)has kidney damage with a mild decrease in their Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 60-89 ml/min. There are usually no symptoms to indicate the kidneys are damaged. Because kidney do a good job even when theyre not functioning at 100 percent, most people will not know they have stage 2 CKD. If they do find out theyre in stage 2, its usually because they were being tested for another condition such asdiabetes orhigh blood pressure the two leading causes of kidney disease.

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Signs of stage 2 kidney diseaseOther ways a person may discover they are in stage 2 CKD include:Higher than normal levels ofcreatinine or urea in the bloodBlood or protein in the urine

Evidence of kidney damage in an MRI, CT scan, ultrasound or contrast X-ray

A family history ofpolycystic kidney disease (PKD)

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Stage 3 of Chronic Kidney DiseaseA person with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) has moderate kidney damage. This stage is broken up into two:a decrease inglomerular filtration rate (GFR) for Stage 3A is45-59 mL/min and a decrease in GFR for Stage 3B is 30-44 mL/min. As kidney functiondeclines waste products can build up in the blood causing a condition known as uremia. In stage 3 a person is more likely to develop complications ofkidney disease such ashigh blood pressure , anemia(a shortage of red blood cells) and/or early bone disease.

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Symptoms of stage 3 CKDSymptoms may start to become present in stage 3:FatigueFluid retention, swelling (edema) of extremities and shortness of breath:Urination changes (foamy; dark orange, brown, tea-colored or red if it contains blood; and urinating more or less than normal)Kidney pain felt in their backSleep problems due to muscle cramps orrestless legs

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Stage 4 of Chronic Kidney DiseaseA person with stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) has advanced kidney damage with a severe decrease in theglomerular filtration rate (GFR)to 15-30 ml/min. It is likely someone with stage 4 CKD will needdialysis or akidney transplantin the near future.As kidney function declines, waste products build up in the blood causing a condition known as uremia. In stage 4, a person is likely to develop complications ofkidney diseasesuch ashigh blood pressure,anemia(a shortage of red blood cells),bone disease,heart diseaseand other cardiovascular diseases.

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Symptoms of stage 4 kidney diseaseSymptoms that are experienced in stage 4 include:

FatigueFluid retention, swelling (edema) of extremities and shortness of breathUrination changes (foamy; dark orange, brown, tea-colored or red if it contains blood; and urinating more or less than normal)Kidney pain felt in their backSleep problems due to muscle cramps orrestless legsNausea and/or vomitingBad breath due to urea buildup in the bloodsome people report having a metallic taste in their mouth or bad breath.Nerve problems:Numbness or tingling in the toes or fingers is a symptom of CKD.

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Stage 5 of Chronic Kidney DiseaseA person with stage 5 chronic kidney disease hasend stage renal disease (ESRD) with aglomerular filtration rate (GFR)of 15 ml/min or less. At this advanced stage of kidney disease, thekidneys have lost nearly all their ability to do their job effectively, and eventuallydialysis or akidney transplantis needed to live.

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Symptoms of stage 5 CKDSymptoms that can occur in stage 5 CKD include:Loss of appetiteNausea or vomitingHeadachesBeing tiredBeing unable to concentrateItchingMaking little or no urineSwelling, especially around the eyes and anklesMuscle crampsTingling in hands or feetChanges in skin colorIncreased skin pigmentation