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Basic Pharmacokinetics- P H A 443 First Day

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Basic Pharmacokinetics- P H A 443 First Day

Text of Basic Pharmacokinetics- P H A 443 First Day

  • 1. Basic Pharmacokinetics PHA 443 Course Content available @ http://pharmacy.creighton.edu Schedule Spring 1999 Week of Text Content Comments Chapters March 15 1 2 Introduction, Basic Math Skills March 22 3 Pharmacological Response March 29 45 IV Bolus, End of Material IV Infusion for Exam # 1 April 5 Exam #1 40% To Be Scheduled April 12 78 Oral Dosing, Bioavailability April 19 9 Clearance April 26 10 Dosage Regimens May 3 Exam #2 60% To Be Scheduled 1
  • 2. Teaching Philosophy Teaching is the number one priority of my Creighton mission. This is why I went to graduate school. This is what I wanted to do all of my life. After I had graduated from pharmacy school and been a practicing pharmacist, I applied to and was accepted into pharmacy graduate school and medical school. I chose the former, without hesitation and without a second thought. Availability My students come first. I am available to students at any time. I do not have office hours. Instead, I have a two-week running schedule on my door which tells the student when I am not available through previous commitments. A student may see me whenever I available in the office or sign up for a future m appointment on that schedule if I not available. When in my office, the student has my entire attention m even to the point of ignoring phone calls. I have voice mail and can return calls but a student ignored is lost forever. Obviously, this process is only a problem when more than one student needs attention at the same time. Thus the need for future appointments. My vision - what I do. When asked, What do you do? I am reminded of a story in which the prince of a nation came upon a construction site whereupon he asked several people what they were doing. They answered according to their job description: I cutting stone. or I mixing mortar. The prince happened on an old stone m m carver cutting a gargoyle. He asked, What are you doing? To which the old stone cutter replied, I m building a cathedral! Well, I building competent health professionals. I teach them Creighton values. I m teach them teamwork. I teach them to be self motivated. I teach them to be self learners. We discuss ethics; the professional, intellectual, social aspects of what it means to be a health professional graduate of Creighton University. I tell my students that I used to teach Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacy Calculations. Now, I use this same course content to teach Creighton values and to build competent health professionals. It took ten years and major trauma to recognize who I am and prioritize what I do. This is what I do.! Every morning, I get up and think, I get to go to school today. It exciting! When we talk in class about s careers, I tell the students that they will have a professional life of about 40 years. For five days a week, fifty weeks a year, they will go to work. It had better be what they want to do! It had better be fun! 2
  • 3. Teaching Style Excerpted from Presentation to American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy July 1997 Evolution of style - Where did it come from? I have over the years attempted to emulate several different styles of pedagogy in an attempt to be a better teacher. Most of us have been trained to do research, but have we been trained to teach? Most of us teach as we were taught. Whether that is good or bad, it the best we can do because it's all we know how to do. s We use the tools that we learned to pass on the skills that we learned to the next generation of health professionals. Many of us, (Pharmacy professors) come to the AACP meeting and attend the Teacher's Seminar. We spend one day a year attempting to perfect our craft. I say craft, for craft, it really is. It really is a learned skill and it doesn't come on conferral of a degree. We don't know how to teach content just because we know content. I have searched for a better way to do this. What I have found, interestingly, comes from coaching techniques as well as pedagogical literature. Several years ago, I took courses to become an ACEP (American Coaching Effectiveness Program) certified Judo coach. Most states recognize this program in lieu of a teaching certificate. After taking this course, I felt that the techniques utilized in the psycho-motor domain should have counterparts in the cognitive domain and I began to search the literature as well as attending workshops on pedagogy. I began to apply what I learned with a gradual improvement of the outcomes of my teaching as evidenced by an improvement of overall performance by the students and improvement of student perceptions of what was being taught as evidenced by my teaching evaluations and student letters. A major breakthrough in my teaching style came as a result of a one week workshop hosted by AACP in the use of case studies in teaching. What I saw was the basics of group dynamics and the beginnings of the process described below. This seminar significantly altered my teaching style from a professor-centered, passive-learning lecture format to an student-centered, active-learning problem solving format. Student Centered, Active Learning Process What I will describe is a student-centered, active learning process applied to teaching a basic science course. Results of this process over multi-year longitudinal retrospective study with respect to student perceptions and performance are evaluated. Objective: Describe (II) the role of objectives in evaluation process I submit that we make competent health professionals. We don't have a guild system of apprenticeship to accomplish this, like pharmacy of a hundred and fifty years ago nor do we have a completely didactic system, but a combination of both with a didactic system designed to impart the scientific background and basis for the rotational apprenticeship experience. If, in fact, our job is to make competent health professionals, it would be reasonable to define a competent health professional. The profession of Pharmacy has determined that there are minimum, entry level abilities or competencies necessary for pharmacists. It is important to understand that these are not the result of some faculty member who sits in his ivory tower saying what he thinks is important, these are what pharmacists do. These have been promulgated as a set competency statements. The NABPLEX competency statements are one such set. These competency statements should be the basis for the NABLPEX part of the state board exam as well as some of the pharmacy curriculum. They are a subset of the Creighton outcomes statements which have been promulgated by and for the faculty. These competency statements are broken down into five general areas and further subdivided into specific activities. These should be considered goals of the educational 3
  • 4. process, these measurable competencies. From these, should come the course objectives, broken down as finely as necessary to give the student the tools to do the competencies. These objectives should consist of three parts, information necessary to do something, (Given....), an action verb (student does something) with a level of difficulty (Bloom's taxonomy of higher educational objectives), and what is it that is to be done. For example: Connect course objectives to desired outcomes Competence statement 2.00.00 Assessing prescriptions / medication orders and the drugs used in dispensing them. Specific activity 2.02.00 The candidate shall assess the physicochemical equivalency or non-equivalency of multi-source drugs Course objectives for Bioavailability: i. Given sufficient data to compare an oral product with another oral product or an IV product, the student will estimate (III) the bioavailability (compare AUCs) and judge (VI) professional acceptance of the product with regard to bioequivalence (evaluate (VI) AUC, Tp, and Cpmax). ii. The student will write (V) a professional consult using the above calculations. Connect course exams to course objectives. It follows, then, that the practice problems and the examinations or course evaluations should be measurement of how well the student mastered the course objectives and nothing else. If it's not an objective, it shouldn't be graded. Conversely, if you think that it should be graded, then it should be an objective. The exam questions and problem sets should be linked to the course objectives and the course objectives should be linked to the competency statements. Chaining this process back one more step, it should be obvious that the prerequisites necessary to complete the objectives also can be determined by this process and clearly stated. The concept is reaso

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