Writing Prompt…• Create a list of the benefits of physical activity
American FamilyChapter 4Physical Activity for Life
Learning Objectivesand FCS Standards
• Learning Objective: Students will examine the benefits of regular physical activity and the risks of a sedentary lifestyle and identify the elements of fitness and analyze how to develop a safe and effective exercise program.
• FCS Standards: 06-12.1.1, 1.A, 1.B, 1.C,
Physical Activity-What is it??
Physical Activity -any form of movement that causes your body to use energy. Can be purposeful or part of your daily life.
Being physically active can improve your overall level of… physical fitness: the ability to carry out daily tasks easily
and have enough reserve energy to respond to unexpected demands.
The Benefits to Physical Health• Improves how different body systems
function• Nervous system: improve reaction time.• Overall, makes your body stronger,
increases energy, improves posture, and reduces fatigue and stiffness.
Benefits to Mental/Emotional Health
•Reduce stress.•Help you feel more relaxed.•Manage anger and frustration.• Improves mood and decrease depression.• Increase your self-confidence.•Reduce mental fatigue.
Benefits to Social Health
• Build confidence leading to better social skills.• Gives you the opportunity to interact with
others.•Managing stress leads to better
relationships with others.
The risks of not exercising.
• Sedentary Lifestyle: a way of life that involves little physical activity.• Unhealthful weight gain can lead to…• Cardiovascular disease• Cancer• Diabetes: Serious disorder that prevents the body from
converting food into energy.• Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by a decrease
in bone density, producing porous and fragile bones.• Reduced ability to manage stress.• Decreased opportunity to socialize.
• What are some recent advancements in technology that have lead to many Americans having a more sedentary lifestyle?
Approaches to Everyday Activities
• Taking an elevator or esculator
• Playing video/computer games
• Getting a ride to a friend’s house
• Using a shopping cart• Watching TV or taking a nap• Taking the car through a car
• Taking the stairs
• ____________________• ____________________
Physical Activity and Weight Control• Metabolism: the process by which your body
gets energy from food.• Food’s energy value is measured in calories.• Your body needs so many calories to
function properly.• Additional calories must be burned through
physical activity or they will be stored in the body as fat.• When you exercise, your metabolic rate
rises and your body burns more calories.
Exercise: How to make it happen?
• Health professionals recommend 60 minutes of moderate physical activity every day.• It doesn’t have to be complicated• Ride your bike or walk to school.• Suggest family exercise.• Be involved in organized sports.• Do things you enjoy and will continue doing
for a long time.
The 5 Elements of Fitness• Use the book, pages 80-86 to complete the chart about the
elements of fitness.
The 5 Elements of Fitness
• 1. Cardiorespiratory Endurance: The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to utilize and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity
• 2. Muscular Strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert
Elements of Fitness Continued• 3. Muscle Endurance: The ability of the muscles to
perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued
• 4. Flexibility: The ability to move a body part through a full range of motion.
• 5. Body Composition: The ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons.
How Exercise Improves Fitness• Exercise: The purposeful physical activity that is
planned, structured, and repetitive and that improves or maintains personal fitness• Various tests can help you evaluate each area of
fitness. When you know your strengths and weaknesses, you can take steps to improve your physical fitness through exercise.
Measuring The Elements of Fitness• Cardiorespiratory Endurance• The Step Test
• Muscular Strength and Endurance• Curl-ups (crunches): measures abdominal strength and endurance.• Arm Hang: measures upper body strength and endurance.
• Flexibility• Sit-and-reach: measures the flexibility in your lower back and backs of
your thighs.• Body Composition• Pinch test: uses a skinfold caliper. Measures folds of skin on three to
seven different parts of the body. The average is then calculated to estimate the total proportion of body fat.
Measuring The Elements of Fitness• In class, we will complete:
• Cardiorespiratory Endurance• The Step Test
• Muscular Strength and Endurance• Curl-ups (crunches): measures abdominal strength and
endurance.• Flexibility• Sit-and-reach: measures the flexibility in your lower back and
backs of your thighs.
• We will them compare our results to the “Healthy Range” results.
Improving Your Cardiorespiratory Fitness
• Aerobic Exercise: Any activity that uses large muscle groups, is rhythmic in nature, and can be maintained continuously for at least 10 minutes three times a day or for 20 to 30 minutes at one time.• Examples: running, cycling, swimming, and
dancing.• How does aerobic exercise affect your heart
Improving Your Muscular Strength and Endurance• Anaerobic Exercise: Intense short bursts of activity in
which the muscles work so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen.• Examples: running a 100 meter dash or lifting weights
• How does anaerobic exercise improve muscular strength and endurance??• Resistance or strength training: builds muscles by requiring
them to move in opposition to a force. Form of anaerobic exercise.• Also helps keep your blood sugar levels normal and maintain healthy
• Stretch regularly: Move your body slowly and gently.
Improving and Maintaining Bone Strength
•What disease are we trying to avoid by improving bone strength?• Resistance training and weight-bearing aerobic
activities can help increase bone mass.• During a person’s late twenties and early
thirties, bone mass and density begin to decline. Take care of your bones now: exercise and eat foods rich in calcium!
Key Guidelines for Adolescents• Adolescents should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity
• Aerobic: Most of the 60 or more minutes a day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, and should include vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 days a week.
• Muscle-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include muscle-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.
• Bone-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include bone-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.
•Where you live• Your level of health• Time and Place• Personal Safety• Cost• Be Comprehensive-Do Crosstraining
The Basics of a Physical Activity Program
• All effective fitness programs are based on these principles• Overload: working the body harder than it is
normally worked.• Progression: the gradual increase in overload
necessary to achieve higher level of fitness.• Specificity: particular exercises and activities
improve particular areas of health-related fitness.
Elements of An Exercise Program
• Warm-up: an activity that prepares the muscles for work.
• The Workout: The part of an exercise program when the activity is performed at its highest peak. (use the FITT formula)
• The Cool-Down: an activity that prepares the muscles to return to a resting state-continue the activity at a slower pace for 5 minutes, then stretch.
More on F.I.T.T.• Frequency-3-4 times per week.
• Intensity-work slowly to build endurance, reach overload
• Time/Duration-slowly build up to 20-30 minutes within your target heart range
• Type-75-80% of time should be aerobic and 20-25% should be anaerobic. Choose something you enjoy.
Resting Heart Rate
• Number of times your heart beats in one minute when you are not active.• Average fitness-72-84. • Below 72 is good fitness level.
• Just four weeks of a fitness program can decrease the rate by 5-10 beats per minute.
Important Safety Concerns
•Hydration: Taking in fluids so that the body functions properly.
• Adequate Rest• 8-10 hours of sleep to help your body
reenergize.• Helps with reaction time, concentration,
forgetfulness, irritability, and depression.
More Safety Concerns
• Avoid Harmful Substances• Anabolic Steroids: synthetic substances that are
similar to the male hormone testosterone.• Harmful effects of steroid use• Risk of cancer and heart disease• Sterility• Skin problems• Hair loss• Sexual underdevelopment and dysfunction• Violent, suicidal, or depressive tendencies• AND, IT’S ILLEGAL!
Other Safety Concerns
• Health Screening: a search or check for diseases or disorders that an individual would otherwise not have knowledge of or seek help for. (such as a sports physical)
• Other things to remember about safety…• Using proper equipment-helmets, pads,
etc.• Knowing your limits and paying attention
to your surroundings.
Possible Weather-Related RisksHot Weather
• Many are related to overexertion: overworking the body.
• Heat Cramps: muscle spasms that result from a loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration.• What to do: lie down in a cool place, drink small amounts
of water. If vomiting, get help.
• Heatstroke: a condition in which the body loses the ability to rid itself of excessive heath through perspiration.• What to do: immediately call for medical help, move
person to a cool place and slowly sponge them with cool water till help arrives.
• Always use sunscreen when exercising outdoors
Possible Weather-Related RisksCold Weather
• Frostbite: a condition that results when the body tissues become frozen• Avoid by dressing warmly. Warning signs: whitening of skin
of the extremities, lack of feeling.• What to do: get inside and run warm water over exposed
• Hypothermia: a condition in which body temperature becomes dangerously low. (70% of the body’s heat is lost through the head)
• What to do: pay attention to your body and go inside and dry off and get warm.
Possible Minor Injuries
• Muscle Cramp: a spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle.• Happens when a muscle is tired, overworked, or
dehydrated. • Drinking cool water can help, stretch the muscle
• Strain: a condition resulting from damaging a muscle or tendon.• Sprain: an injury to the ligament surrounding a joint.• These minor injuries can be treated using the R.I.C.E.
method• Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Major Exercise-Related Injuries• Fractures and Dislocations
What do you think?• Should random drug testing of athletes and students in extra-
curricular activities be preformed?
• Explain and support your answers using information from this chapter.