This presentation deals with the Indus Water Treaty between India and Pakistan in 1960.
Text of Indusriverbasinpaper hasrat-130119064313-phpapp02
1. Indus River Basin System 21st largest river in the world in terms of annual flow 60% of Indus basin lies in Pakistan and Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (POK), 10% in Tibet, 25% in India and India- Administered Kashmir, and 7% in Afghanistan Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges 80% of water for Upper Indus Rivers comes from Himalayan glaciers 25 amphibian species and 147 fish species of which 22 are endemic Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains
2. Introduction Indus is a river system that sustains 200 million people in India and Pakistan Both India and Pakistan have extensively dammed the Indus River With competing demands of water both sides, the conflicts sustain since 1947, year of partition Indus Water Treaty (IWT) agreed in 1960 Transboundary water conflicts on climax now Climate change is supposed to add to conflicts New challenges to governance and institutions Need to reform the international legislation and governance to cope with uncertainties 3. Status Quo East and West Punjab signed standstill agreement in 1947. Dispute over the worth of Pakistans irrigation canal network East Punjab (Indian side)suspends water supply to West side Partition created issues taking things in their own hands 4. Came to light on April 1,1948 after partition of Punjab Cut across the rivers and canals India cutoff flow of canal water to West Punjab Stopped the water of the rivers Ravi and Sutlej India wanted to damage Pakistan economically 5. Competing Water Demands & Transboundary Conflicts Water disputes between Punjab and Sind provinces during British India Conflict in the basin started in 1947 when India stopped water flowing through its canals to Pakistan Dispute over Salal dam was settled in 1978 Controversy on the Wullar Barrage/ Tulbul Navigation project and Kishanganga hydroelectric dams remains unsettled. Baglihar dam created severe conflicts, but the issue was settled by recourse to Neutral Expert Recent Conflicts created around: 57-metre high Nimoo-Bazgo dam in Leh (India); 42-metre high Chuttak dam on Suru river (India-Kashmir); Tulbul Navigation Project in India-Kashmir 6. Need for developmental infrastructure Both countries needed massive water infrastructure to support population East Punjab had 21 million with no food supply It needed storage devices to develop arid but fertile land West Punjab needed to ensure water supply 7. Some Major Dams on Indias Part of Indus River Basin 8. Transboundary Governance System Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4, 1948: required India to release sufficient waters to Pakistani regions Pakistan wanted to take the matter to the International Court of Justice but India refused In 1951, David E. Lilienthal, former chairman of Tennessee Valley Authority, visited India and Pakistan. Lilienthal wrote an article with suggestions that Indus Basin be treated, exploited, and developed as a single unit 9. Involvement of The World Bank The bank is reluctant to get involved initially World bank refuses loans to both countries even though they were economically viable Offered an impartial third party Offered an option taking into account both countries needs 10. Principles of Involvement The bank offered a deal in 1954 based on 3 principles. There was enough water for both countries in the basin. While considering the Sutlej River the entire basin would be considered as one and all rivers would be under discussion. The negotiations would retain a technical focus rather than political focus 11. Distribution on the basis of number of rivers 3 major eastern tributaries(Sutlej, Beas, and Ravi) India 3 major western tributaries(Chenab , Jhelum and the Indus) Pakistan India pays $ 174 million over 10 years Canal and reservoir construction financed through the Bank Commission to resolve future disputes Features of the deal 12. World Bank mediated from 1952 onwards, and Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in September 1960 although Pakistan, not fully convinced ,refused to sign until 1958 IWT conferred rights over 3 western rivers of Indus river system (Jhelum, Chenab and Indus) to Pakistan, and over 3 eastern rivers (Sutlej, Ravi and Beas) to India 13. ChronologyofIndusWaterTreaty (adaptedfromJutlaandDewayne,2009) 14. Reasons for success A unique mix of circumstances contributed to the success of the effort. Leadership Timeline Finances Restricted Discussion 15. Problems with the treaty Does not account for the increase demand in India/Pakistan. India cannot build dams without consultation on 3 tributaries Higher demand due to economic growth cannot be addressed by major rivers of the region Delays in projects 16. Some Adverse Effects It was a grave blow to agriculture of Pakistan Pakistans agriculture vitally and entirely depend on canals drawn from Indus Rain fall is scanty and undependable Effected agriculture very badly Pakistan also purchased water from India to avoid economic disaster. 17. It is in the interest of India and Pakistan to follow the treaty in letter and spirit Undisturbed flow from the western rivers is must for survival of the country no one should be allowed to play with it as it is matter of life and death for Pakistan. We must have a strategy to ensure so. Absence of such strategy could spell disaster for the entire region!!!!