Chef thesaurus

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  1. 1. Roots Synonyms: root vegetables Root vegetables are rich in nutrients, low in fat and calories, inexpensive and usually available throughout the year. Beyond that, they have wildly varying characteristics. Radishes are pungent, carrots sweet, beets earthy. Others, like parsnips, turnips, and rutabagas, have more subtle flavors. Root vegetables will last awhile in your pantry, and even longer in your refrigerator. Substitutes: tubers beet = beetroots Equivalents: 3 - 5 medium beets = 1 lb. = 2 cups diced Notes: Beets have a distinctive earthy flavor that's enhanced by roasting, but they can also be steamed, microwaved, or boiled. A beet will be more flavorful and colorful if you leave the peel and some of the stem on while it's cooking. After it's cooled down, the peel comes off fairly easily. Varieties include the familiar red beets, golden beets, which turn a golden orange when cooked and are slightly sweeter than red beets, white beets, and chioggia (pronounced KYAHD-dja) = candy-stripe beets = candy cane beets which have alternating white and red rings inside. Baby beets are sweeter and faster-cooking than larger beets. Select beets that are heavy for their size. Canned beets are a good
  2. 2. substitute for fresh. Substitutes: carrots OR (in salads) slicing tomatoes beggar's button black oyster plant black radish Notes: These large, pungent radishes are better known in Eastern Europe than in the United States. With their black peels and white interiors, they can be fashioned into attractive garnishes, or you can peel and cook them like turnips. You can also serve them raw, though it helps to tame them down first by salting and rinsing them. Substitutes: rutabaga (much milder flavor) OR turnip (much milder flavor) black salsify burdock = gobo root = great burdock = beggar's button Notes: Burdock is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, but it's already an important vegetable in Asia. It lends an interesting, earthy flavor to soups, stews, or stir- fried dishes. Select small, firm roots. Substitutes: salsify OR asparagus OR artichoke hearts
  3. 3. carrot Notes: Raw or cooked, carrots add sweetness and color to stews, soups, stir- fries, slaws, cakes, and crudit platters, plus they're a great source of Vitamin A. Try to buy them with the greens still attached, they're usually fresher and sweeter that way. Equivalents: 1 large carrot = 1 cup grated Substitutes: parsnip (don't serve raw) OR jicama OR daikon (especially if served raw) OR celery (good raw or cooked) OR celeriac (consider blanching first if using in a raw salad) OR turnip (if cooked) OR kohlrabi (great cooked or raw) OR broccoli OR rutabagas (if cooked) OR cauliflower OR salsify (dip in acidulated water after peeling to prevent them from turning black) celeriac = celery root = celery knob = turnip-rooted celery = knob celery = Germany celery = soup celery = turnip celery = cleri-rave Pronunciation: suh- LAIR-ee-yak Notes: This underrated vegetable is a relative of celery that's been developed for its root, which has a pleasant celery flavor. It's popular in France and Northern Europe, where it's usually peeled and cooked in stews or grated and served raw. Many large supermarkets carry celeriac; select smallish roots that are heavy for their size. Substitutes: turnips OR celery ribs (weaker flavor) OR parsley root OR (in salads of grated vegetables) carrots + dash celery seeds celeri-rave celery knob celery root
  4. 4. Chinese radish Chinese turnip See jicama OR lo bok. coriander root = cilantro root Notes: Thai recipes sometimes call for these roots, but they're hard to find in markets. The best source is to pull out a cilantro plant in your garden, or you can use cilantro stems instead. Substitutes: cilantro stems (use two stems for each root) daikon = white radish = Japanese radish = Chinese radish = icicle radish = lo bak = loh baak = loh buk = mooli = Oriental radish = lo pak Pronuncation: DIE-kon Notes: Daikon is larger and milder than its relative, the red radish. The Japanese like to grate it and serve it with sushi or sashimi, but you can also pickle it, stir-fry it, or slice it into salads. Japanese daikons tend to be longer and skinnier than their Chinese counterparts, but the two varieties can be used interchangeably. Choose specimens that are firm and shiny. They don't store well, so try to use them right away. Substitutes: jicama (This is especially good in recipes that call for daikon to be grated.) OR young turnip (for pickling) OR radish (not as hot) OR black radish (much more pungent) OR pickled ginger (as a garnish) OR parsnips (in soups or stews) OR turnips (in soups or stews) Dutch parsley Germany celery German mustard goatsbeard gobo root great burdock Hamburg parsley heimischer
  5. 5. horseradish (root) = German mustard Notes: This is a very pungent brown root that's usually peeled and grated to make a condiment for meats. Its intense flavor and aroma dissipate quickly when exposed to air, so it should be grated just before serving or mixed with something sour (like vinegar, lemon juice, or beet juice) to lock in the heat. It's easiest to use a blender or food processor to grate it. Fresh horseradish is surprisingly potent, so make sure your kitchen is well ventilated, wear rubber gloves, and don't rub your eyes. Substitutes: wasabi OR horseradish sauce (not as potent as freshly grated horseradish, so use more.) OR black radish (salt, let stand for an hour, then rinse if serving raw) icicle radish Japanese radish knob celery lo bak loh baak loh buk lotus root Notes: Slices of the lotus root have a beautiful pattern. The fresh version is available sporadically; if not, the canned version is almost as good. Rinse and drain before using. Look for it in Asian markets. Substitutes: water chestnuts OR sunchokes OR jicama (This is cheaper, but has a less delicate flavor.) mooli Oriental radish
  6. 6. oyster plant parsley root = parsnip-rooted parsley = turnip-rooted parsley = Hamburg parsley = Dutch parsley = heimischer = padrushka Notes: This is hard to find in the United States, but it's a popular root vegetable in Central Europe. Substitutes: celeriac OR carrots OR parsnips OR turnips Notes: For more information, see the Wegman's Food Market's page on Parsley Root. parsnip Notes: These are like carrots, except that they're cream-colored and never served raw. Northern Europeans like to add them to stews, but they can also be pured or served as a side dish. Choose small, crisp ones. Substitutes: carrot OR salsify OR turnip OR celeriac OR parsley root OR sweet potato parsnip-rooted parsley radish Notes: With their crisp texture and peppery flavor, raw radishes are great in salads and on crudit platters. They can also be cut into attractive garnishes. Select firm, fresh-looking radishes and store them in your refrigerator for no more than a week. Substitutes: daikon (slightly hotter) OR jicama (for snacking)
  7. 7. rutabaga = Swede turnip = Swede = yellow turnip Pronunciation: roo-tuh-BAY-guh Notes: Rutabagas look like turnips, only they're a bit larger and have a yellow complexion. Use them just as you would turnips. Substitutes: turnip (smaller, not as sweet; takes less time to cook) OR celeriac OR kohlrabi salsify = goatsbeard = oyster plant = vegetable oyster Pronunciation: SAL-suh-fee OR SAL-suh-fie Notes: When cooked, salsify has the taste and texture of an artichoke heart. There are two types: white salsify (pictured at left) and the more highly regarded black salsify = scorzonera = black oyster plant = viper grass. After peeling salsify, put it into acidulated water right away to prevent it from turning brown. Canned salsify is a good substitute for fresh, but it's hard to find. Substitutes: parsnip OR burdock OR Jerusalem artichoke OR artichoke heart OR asparagus OR turnip OR carrot scorzonera soup celery Swede Swede turnip
  8. 8. turnip Notes: Turnips can be roasted, boiled, steamed, or stir-fried. Select small turnips that feel heavy for their size. Substitutes: rutabaga (larger and sweeter than turnips; takes longer to cook) OR kohlrabi bulbs (similar flavor) OR black radish (more pungent) OR celeriac OR parsnip OR carrot OR salsify OR daikon turnip celery turnip-rooted celery turnip-rooted parsley vegetable oyster viper grass white radish white salsify yellow turnip Tubers & Corms
  9. 9. Technically, tubers and corms are swollen underground plant stems, but it's easier to think of them as the "family of potato-like vegetables." They're used worldwide as a source of carbohydrates, often taking a back seat to more flavorful and colorful ingredients. Pronunciation: TOO-ber OR TYOO-ber and KORM Varieties: ahipa apio arracacha = apio Shopping hints: These come from South America. According to the FAO, they taste like a cross between celery, cabbage, and chestnuts. Substitutes: potatoes arrowhead arrowroot = arrow root = Chinese potato (this name also is used for jicama) = goo = seegoo = arrowhead = Chinese arrowhead = tse goo = ci gu = tsu goo Notes: The name arrowroot is more commonly associated with a thickener that's made from the plant. A fresh arrowroot tuber looks like a small onion, only without the layers. It should be peeled, and then it can be boiled or stir-fried. Look for it in Chinese markets during the winter. Substitutes: water chestnuts OR jicama
  10. 10. baddo bitter casava Brazilian arrowroot casava cassava = casava = manioc = mandioca = tapioca root = yucca = yucca root = yuca root = Brazilian arrowroot Pronunciation: kuh-SAH-vuh Notes: People in Hispanic countries use cassavas much like Americans use potatoes. There's both a sweet and a bitter variety of cassava. The sweet one can be eaten raw, but the bitter one requires cooking to destroy the harmful prussic acid it contains. It's often best to buy frozen cassava, since the fresh kind is hard to peel. Look for it in Hispanic markets. It doesn't