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  • CambodiaNational Report on Protected Areas and Development

    Review of Protected Areasand Development

    L o w e r M e k o n g R i v e r R e g i o n

    N a t i o n a lR e p o r t

    L o w e r M e k o n g R i v e r R e g i o n

  • CambodiaNational Report on Protected Areas and Development

    Review of protected areas and development in the four countriesof the Lower Mekong River Region

    Ministry ofEnvironment

    Ministry ofEconomics and Finance

  • Published by: ICEM, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia

    The PAD Review publications have been made possible by funding from Danish Interna-tional Development Assistance, Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, AustralianAgency for International Development, Asian Development Bank, Royal NetherlandsGovernment and Mekong River Commission.

    Copyright: 2003 International Centre for Environmental Management

    Citation: ICEM, 2003. Cambodia National Report on Protected Areas and Development. Review ofProtected Areas and Development in the Lower Mekong River Region, Indooroopilly,Queensland, Australia. 148 pp.

    ISBN: 0 975033 21 2

    Design and layout: Patricia Halladay, Kimdo Design and Paul Insua-CaoMaps by Shaska Martin

    Cover photo: Ream National Park by Stuart ChapeOther photographs by Birdlife International in Indochina (pp. 94); Stuart Chape (pp. 22,135 ); Ross Hughes (pp. 127); Paul Insua-Cao (pp. 95, 99); Shaska Martin (pp. 32-52, 77-82,98, 102-109, 133) ; Iris Uyttersprot (pp. 120, 122); and WWF / Ben Hayes (pp. 13-19, 28, 53-73, 86, 89, 111-118, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140)

    Printed by: Kimdo Design, Hanoi

    Available from: ICEM70 Blackstone Street,Indooroopilly, 4068, Queensland,AustraliaTelephone: 61 7 38786191Fax: 61 7 38786391www.icem.com.auwww.mekong-protected-areas.org

    The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the mate-rial, do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of ICEM or other participatingorganisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of itsauthorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes isauthorised without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the sourceis fully acknowledged.

    Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibitedwithout prior written permission of the copyright holder.

  • CambodiaNational Report on Protected Areas and Development

    The PAD Partnership - 2003

    Review of protected areas and development in the four countriesof the Lower Mekong River Region

  • The PAD Partnership

    Principal government partners

    Royal Government of Cambodia

    Department of Nature Conservation and Protection, Ministry of Environment (lead agency)

    Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

    Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

    Cambodia National Mekong Committee

    Government of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic

    Department of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (lead agency)

    Science, Technology and Environment Agency

    National Economic Research Institute, State Planning Committee

    Lao National Mekong Committee

    Royal Government of Thailand

    Department of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Ministry of Natural Resources andEnvironment (lead agency)

    Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board

    Thai National Mekong Committee

    Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    Forest Protection Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (lead agency)

    Department for Science, Education and Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment

    National Environment Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment

    Department for Fishery Resources Management, Ministry of Fisheries

    Vietnam National Mekong Committee

    Donors

    Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA)

    Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID)

    Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    Royal Netherlands Government

    International technical support partners

    International Centre for Environmental Management (ICEM) (lead partner)

    IUCN - The World Conservation Union

    United Nations Development Programme

    Mekong River Commission

    Worldwide Fund for Nature

    Birdlife International

    New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service

    Tropical Forest Trust

  • Table of contents 5

    Contents

    Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................ 8Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................... 10Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 12Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. 19

    PART 1: Biophysical and demographic features .......................................................................................... 22

    1. Biogeographic characteristics of Cambodia....................................................................... 22Biogeographic profile ........................................................................................................ 22Bioregional planning, protected areas and priority setting ...................................... 28

    2. Demographic characteristics of Cambodia ......................................................................... 32Population profile ................................................................................................................ 32Socio-economic profile ...................................................................................................... 32Migration trends................................................................................................................... 35Socio-economic trends and protected areas .............................................................. 36

    PART 2: Economic development, governance and protected areas ...................................................... 37

    3. Governance and institutional reform ...................................................................................... 37Government Structure......................................................................................................... 37Decentralisation ................................................................................................................... 38Other governance reform priorities ..................................................................................41The role of protected areas in governance reform......................................................43

    4. The Cambodian economy ......................................................................................................... 45Cambodian economic performance ............................................................................... 45Economic outlook ............................................................................................................... 46

    5. Development planning and finance ........................................................................................48Socio-economic planning ..................................................................................................48Government priority setting .............................................................................................. 49National finance and budgetary system .........................................................................51Future directions .................................................................................................................. 52

    PART 3: Protected areas and environmental management ..................................................................... 53

    6. Protected area planning and management ......................................................................... 53Institutional arrangements .................................................................................................54Staffing issues ....................................................................................................................... 57Intersectoral cooperation and conflict resolution ....................................................... 58Management planning ....................................................................................................... 59Zonation................................................................................................................................. 62Investment in protected areas ......................................................................................... 63Protected areas legislation ............................................................................................... 65Integrated planning and the cluster approach to protected areas ........................ 66Future directions ................................................................................................................... 67

    7. Environmental management and protected areas ............................................................. 70National environmental policy ..........................................................................