EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO SEED

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WELCOME TO THE THESIS PRESENTATIONDEPARTMENT OF SEED TECHNOLOGYSHER-E-BANGLA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITYDHAKA-1207

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EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO SEED

SYED TARIK MAHABUBREG. NO. : 09-03616SEMESTER : JULY-DECEMBER, 2015

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INTRODUCTION

4Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) belongs to the family of Solanaceae is one of the most popular vegetables rank next to potato and sweet potato in respect of vegetable production in the worldBangladesh produces 251 thousand metric tons of tomatoes from 65 thousand acres of land with an average yield of 3.86 metric t ha -1There is evidence that regular tomato consumption decreases the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases such as certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseasesIt contains lycopene, one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. Lycopene has been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect against harmful UV raysThe chemical composition of tomato includes: total sugar 2.50-4.50%, vitamin C 15-20 mg/100g, calcium 0.25-0.50g/100g, magnesium 0.10-0.50g/100g, phosphorous 0.20-0.80g/100g, iron 40-500 ppm, zinc 10-50 ppm, lycopene 20-50g/100g (dry fruit weight basis)

5Salinity is a major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and fruit yield throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of the worldAbout 770,000 km2 of the land is affected by secondary salinization, 20 % of the irrigated areas and about 2 % of the total agricultural land in BangladeshIt induces osmotic and toxic effects leading to physiological, morphological and biochemical modifications; it causes growth inhibition, crop yield reduction, lower photosynthesis and respiration, nutritional deficiencies and inhibition of protein synthesis In saline environments, the cotyledons to break through a soil crust, emerging and seedlings to survive are crucial for crop production The detrimental effect of salinity occurs because of osmotic stress and specific ion toxicity The importance of seed germination under salt stress, the mechanism of salt tolerance in seeds is relatively poorly understood, especially when compared with the amount of information currently available about salt tolerance physiology and biochemistry in vegetative stage of plants

6OBJECTIVESTo study the salt tolerance of tomato varieties at seed germination and seedling stage, and To assess the effects of different concentrations of NaCl on germination of tomato seed.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

8Experimental SiteThe experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of the Department of Agronomy, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, BangladeshExperimental PeriodJanuary to March, 2015Collection of plant materialSix varieties of tomato seeds were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur.Experimental Design and LayoutThe two factor experiment was conducted following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Twenty five seeds of each variety represented one replication

9Treatment of the ExperimentThe experiment consisted of two factors:Factor A: Six tomato varieties

Factor B: Five salt concentrationsT1= Distilled water (Control)T2 = 25 mMT3 = 50 mMT4 = 100 mMT5 = 150 mMV1 = BaharV2=BARI Tomato -1(Manik)V3=BARI Tomato -2(Ratan)V4=BARI Tomato -6(Choti)V5=BARI Tomato -9(Lalima)V6= BARI Tomato -12(Shidur)

10Preparation of the solutionsThe data were recorded on the following parametersStatistical analysisThe collected data were compiled and analyzed statistically using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique with the help of a computer package program MSTAT-C and the mean differences were adjusted by Least Significance Difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability Collection of dataTreatmentsSalinity level (mM)Amount of NaCl gL-1 in distilledwater T10 (control)0.0T2251.46T3502.92T41005.84T51508.76

Germination percentageCoefficient of germinationRadicle lengthPlumule lengthSeed vigor indexRadicle fresh weightPlumule fresh weightRadicle dry weightPlumule dry weight

11RESULTS AND DISCISSION

12Figure 1. Effect of varieties on the germination of tomato seeds at different days after sowing (LSD0.05= 0.35, 0.66, 1.11, 1.51, 1.67, 1.81, 1.94 and 1.93 at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 DAS, respectively)

13Figure 2. Effect of NaCl concentration on the germination of tomato seeds at different days after sowing (LSD0.05= 0.32, 0.60, 1.01, 1.38, 1.52, 1.65, 1.77 and 1.76 at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 DAS, respectively)

14Table 2. Combined effect of varieties and NaCl concentration on germination of tomato seeds at different days after sowing (DAS)VarietyNaCl conc.Germination (%)4 DAS5 DAS6 DAS7 DAS8 DAS9 DAS10 DAS11 DASBahar (V1)0 (S0)22.67 c53.33 d62.67 f73.33 e74.69 e74.67 fg74.67 f74.67 f25 (S1)8.00 g11.68 j28.00 j57.33 h62.67 g62.67 i62.67 gh62.67 gh50 (S2)0.00 j4.00 l16.00 l33.33 k34.67 k34.67 l34.67 m34.67 l100 (S3)0.00 j0.00 m2.670 o16.00 o16.00 n16.00 n17.33 o17.33 n150 (S4)0.0 0 j0.00 m0.00 p0.00 q0.00 q0.00 p0.00 q0.00 pBARI Tomato-10 (S0)34.67 b73.33 b82.67 b90.67 b92.00 a92.00 ab92.00 ab92.00 ab25 (S1)13.33 e46.67 f66.67 e78.47 d82.67 c82.67 de82.67 de82.67 de50 (S2)0.0 j4.00 l22.60 k34.67 k42.67 j42.67 k42.65 kl42.67 jk100 (S3)0.0 j0.00 m9.33 mn20.00 n20.00 m22.67 m26.67 n26.67 m150 (S4)0.00 j0.00 m0.00 p0.00 q0.00 q0.00 p0.00 q0.00 pBARI Tomato-20 (S0)22.67 c50.67 e74.67 d73.33 e86.69 b86.67 cd86.67 cd86.67 cd25 (S1)13.33 e28.00 g48.00 h57.44 h66.65 f66.67 hi66.67 g66.67 g50 (S2)0.00 j16.00 i34.67 i50.67 i54.67 h55.34 j57.33 ij56.33 i100 (S3)0.00 j4.00 l8.00 n29.33 l34.67 k34.67 l34.67 m34.67 l150 (S4)0.00 j0.00 m0.00 p0.00 q0.00 q0.00 p0.00 q0.00 pBARI Tomato-60 (S0)13.33 e22.67 h36.00 i48.00 i57.33 h57.33 j61.33 hi61.33 h25 (S1)2.67 i8.00 k16.00 l28.00 l34.67 k34.67 l41.33 l41.33 k50 (S2)0.00 j0.00 m4.0 o16.00 o16.00 n16.00 n25.33 n25.33 m100 (S3)0.00 j0.00 m0.00 p8.00 p8.00 p8.0 o10.67 p10.67 o150 (S4)0.00 j0.00 m0.00 p0.00 q0.00 q0.00 p0.00 q0.00 pBARI Tomato-90 (S0)16.00 d24.00 h50.67 g62.67 g78.67 d78.70 ef78.67 ef78.67 ef25 (S1)4.00 h12.00 j26.67 j38.67 j50.67 i55.34 j56.00 j56.00 i50 (S2)0.00 j0.00 m10.67 m24.00 m26.67 l26.67 m26.67 n26.67 m100 (S3)0.00 j0.00 m4.0 o8.00 p12.00 o12.00 no14.67 op12.00 o150 (S4)0.00 j0.00 m0.00 p0.00 q0.00 q0.00 p0.00 q0.00 pBARI Tomato-120 (S0)46.67 a81.33 a90.67 a94.67 a94.67 a94.60 a94.67 a94.67 a25 (S1)9.33 f62.67 c78.67 c86.67 c88.00 b88.00 bc89.33 bc89.34 bc50 (S2)2.66 i12.00 j28.00 j66.67 f69.33 f70.67 gh74.67 f74.65 f100 (S3)0.0 0 j 4.00 l21.33 k38.67 j44.0 j44.0 k46.67 k46.67 j150 (S4)0.00 j0.00 m0.00 p0.00 q0.00 q0.00 p0.00 q0.00 pLSD (0.05)0.781.482.473.373.734.054.344.32CV (%)6.865.255.525.465.495.916.136.13

15 Figure 3. Effect of varieties on the germination coefficient of tomato seeds (LSD0.05=0.43

16Figure 4. Effect of NaCl concentration on the germination coefficient of tomato seeds (LSD0.05=0.40)

17Table 3. Combined effect of varieties and NaCl concentration on germination coefficient and vigority index of tomato seeds VarietyNaCl conc.Germination coefficientVigority indexBahar (V1)0 (S0)15.53 ab865.4 d25 (S1)14.13 d-h588.6 f50 (S2)13.77 e-h288.6 hi100 (S3)13.23 g-i101.4 m150 (S4)0.00 k0.00 oBARI Tomato-10 (S0)15.91 a1233 a25 (S1)15.07 a-d991.1 c50 (S2)13.77 e-h471.5 g100 (S3)13.33 g-i167.9 l150 (S4)0.00 k0.00 oBARI Tomato-20 (S0)15.31 a-c983.7 c25 (S1)14.70 b-e621.8 f50 (S2)14.16 d-g430.5 g100 (S3)13.49 ghi184.0 kl150 (S4)0.00 k0.00 oBARI Tomato-60 (S0)14.57 bcdef630.7 f25 (S1)13.69 fghi322.9 h50 (S2)12.74 i169.1 l100 (S3)10.66 j42.76 no150 (S4)0.00 k0.00 oBARI Tomato-90 (S0)14.55 cdef841.0 d25 (S1)13.82 efgh595.7 f50 (S2)13.55 ghi228.7 jk100 (S3)13.18 hi52.96 n150 (S4)0.00 k0.00 oBARI Tomato-120 (S0)16.00 a1266 a25 (S1)15.23 a-c1050 b50 (S2)13.80 e-h730.1 e100 (S3)13.62 f-i258.1 ij150 (S4)0.0 0 k0.00 oLSD (0.05)0.9745.02CV (%)5.266.3

18 Figure 5. Effect of varieties on the vigority index of tomato seeds (LSD0.05= 20.13)

19Figure 6. Effect of NaCl concentration on the radicle length of tomato seeds (LSD0.05=18.38)

20Figure 7. Effect of varieties on the radicle length of tomato seeds at different days after sowing (LSD0.05= 0.08, 0.11, 0.13 and 0.13 at 5, 7, 9 and 11 DAS, respectively)

21Figure 8. Effect of NaCl concentration on the radicle length of tomato seeds at different days after sowing (LSD0.05= 0.08, 0.10, 0.12 and 0.12 at 5, 7, 9 and 11 DAS, respectively)

22Table 4. Combined effect of varieties and NaCl concentration on radical length of tomato seeds at different days after sowing (DAS)VarietyNaCl conc.Radicle length (mm)5 DAS7 DAS9 DAS11 DASBahar (V1)0 (S0)4.13 ef5.47 cd6.05 c6.21 c-e25 (S1)3.50 g4.48 e5.03 de5.40 f50 (S2)3.00 hi3.70 gh4.23 f4.87 g100 (S3)0.00 l1.53 j2.20 jk3.21 k150 (S4)0.00 l0.00 l0.00 l0.00 mBARI Tomato-10 (S0)6.10 a6.83 a7.73 a7.78 a25 (S1)5.33 b5.54 c6.56 b6.81 b50 (S2)4.50 d4.29 e5.93 c6.02 de100 (S3)0.00 l1.74 ij3.10 h3.98 j150 (S4)0.00 l0.00 l0.00 l0.00 mBARI Tomato-20 (S0)4.01 f6.23 b6.07 c6.30 cd25 (S1)3.51 g5.37 cd5.07 de5.27 f50 (S2)2.50 j4.00 f4.20 fg4.39 i100 (S3)0.00 l1.67 ij2.80 i3.01 k150