Presents:KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS•PianoOrgan CelestaCOMBINATION OF INSTRUMENTSA. ENSEMBLE MEDIAOrchestraSymphony orchestraConcertoBandRondalla
B. MIXED ENSEMBLESChamber orchestraChamber ensemblesSpecial ensembles
Zhara Lou G. Perez
Reinalyn V. Baluyut
Mara Clarisa M. Foronda
PART ONE:KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTSCOMBINATION OF INSTRUMENTSREPORTED BY:
ZHARA LOU G. PEREZ
KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS These instruments are operated by means of a keyboard which consists of black and white keys.
Although the keyboard instruments are included with the percussion group, they constitute a special set which may be considered seperately. Keyboard instruments include: piano, organ, celesta, and other keyboard instruments like: piano accordion, and the harmonium.
The piano is the most popular and most widespread of all instruments. It has the ability to sound several tones simultaneously and has the capacity to present complex musical textures by itself, making an extremely useful instrument.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PIANOConcert Grand Piano- the largest size of grand piano, used for concert performances.Grand Piano- a horizontal, harp-shaped piano, having three or more strings to each note, and action without springs.Square Piano- a piano having a horizontal rectangular case and horizontally atrung wire.Upright Piano- a piano in which the case is upright, with the strings vertical and overstrung to save space.
Concert grand piano Square piano
THE ORGANthe organ is a principal keyboard instrument but it has a physical property which makes it a wind instrument. It’s sounds are made by air forced by mechanical means through pipes.
chord organ Electric organ
Church reed organ
Electric Hammond organ
LAS PINAS BAMBOO ORGAN
the celesta, which in appearance resembles a miniature upright piano, is a kind of glockenspiel that is operated by a keyboard; the steel plates are struck by small hammers producing bell-like tones.
OTHER MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS PLAYED BY KEYBOARD:
HARMONIUMIs a keyboard instrument related to the organ in that its tone is produced by air (belows operated by feet) which sets thin strips of metal (reeds) vibrating.
PIANO ACCORDIONHas a melody keyboard for the right hand.
COMBINATION OF INSTRUMENTS:
ENSEMBLE MEDIAMIXED ENSEMBLES
A. ENSEMBLE MEDIAWhen two or more performers are equally engaged in playing or singing a piece of music, the medium is called an ensemble (an sam’b’l) and the music is called ensemble music
Instrumental ensembles exists in almost infinite combinations. Some of these are the follows:OrchestraThe symphony orchestraConcertoBandThe rondalla
The most spectacular of ensembles, composed of any sizable group of instrumental performers usually under the direction of a conductorIt may vary in size from a relatively small groups to an ensemble of a hundred or more players.The performers are divided into the four sections.In large orchestras, approximately 2/3 are string players and 1/3 are wind players. Three to five people take care of the percussion.
In a typical modern orchestra, there are 34 violins which are divided into 2 groups, first and second. Each group functions as a unit and plays a part distinct from the rest.In the woodwind section, one of the players of the principal instrument generaly doubles with another related instrument.
The symphony orchestra
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAIs a large ensemble which includes all the principal
instrument types.The modern symphony orchestra has about 100 players, this number varies according to the kind of music being played.It is composed of four sections of corresponding to the four instrumental groupings; the string section. The woodwind section, the brass section, and the percussion sectionEach of these sections has least one instrument which falls into each of the four basic ranges: SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR, AND BASS
EXAMPLE OF SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
THE MANILA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
PRAGUE SYMPHONY ORHESTRA
Combination of instruments:ENSEMBLE MEDIACONCERTOBANDTHE RONDALLA
MIXED ENSEMBLESCHAMBER ORCHESTRA
REPORTED BY:BALUYUT, REINALYN V.
CONCERTOThe concerto is a form written for orchestra and usually one solo instrument (PIANO, VIOLIN, AND THE LIKE) is given a prominent role in music.
An instrumental ensemble, large like the orchestra but consisting mainly or exclusively of wind and percussion instruments.
Although the band is closely associated with outdoor events (parades, funerals, football games, among others), it is also used as a concert ensemble.
The best-known instrumental group in the Philippines today.It is a band made up mostly of stringed instruments like:
Banduria- which assumes the lead part and plays the melodyLaud and octavina- which carry the alto and contrapuntal partsPiccolo- tuned aboved the banduria, which plays the ornamental passages;andGuitarra and banjo- which gives solidity to the rhyrhm and support the harmony.
MUSICAL ENSEMBLES IN THE PHILIPPINES
PANGKAT OR THE BANDANG KAWAYAN- composed of instruments made of bamboo. Among these instruments are:Bumbong- single noteThe native Marimba or TalunggatingThe bamboo harp or Tipang-klungThe Gabbang- which is patterned after the Muslim-type xylophoneThe Tulali or bamboo fluteThe Bungkaka or bamboo clapper, andThe Kalatok or bamboo knockers.
MIXED ENSEMBLESa considerable literature of music exists for large ensembles which include instruments and voices. Such musical types as an opera, oratorio, cantata, mass, requiem mass, ans even even symphonies may employ vocal soloist, chorus, and orchestra.Mixed chamber ensembles have made their appearance in the 20th century.
THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA
The term chamber orchestra is applied to small instrumental ensembles in which there are only a few performers for a part.Chamber orchestras are in a category of ensemble between chamber ensemble and the full osrchestra
CHAMBER ENSEMBLESSPECIAL ENSEMBLES
REPORTED BY:FORONDA, MARA CLARISSA M.
CHAMBER ENSEMBLESChamber music is a medium which calls for only a few performers (from two about eight or nine instruments) with one player to each part.The common chamber music ensembles are listed below:
Solo sonatas- music written for a solo instrument (violin, cello, flue, oboe, horn,and the like), with an accompaniment bys uch instruments such as the piano or harpsichord, belongs to the category of chamber music ensemble.String quartet- the most common medium of chambermusic. It consists 2 violins, a viola, and a cello. When the piano replaces one of the four instruments, the ensembles is called piano quartet.
Duos, Trios, Quintets, And Other
- Music in 2 instruments have equal importance is called duo; music for 3 instruments is called trio; for 5, a quintet; for 6, a sextet; for 7, a septet; for 8, an octet; for 9, nonet. These ensembles may consists any combination of instruments, including strings, woodwinds, brass, keyboard, and percussion instruments.
SPECIAL ENSEMBLESas music evolves, composers search for new media more congenial to their changing musical ideas. A particularly significant trend in recent years has been the development of electronic instruments, which many contemporary composers feel are more versatile than traditional instruments and more suitable for achieving the sounds they want for music.
Today, the size of the orchestras and the complicated music have the conductor essential.The conductor is the director of the orchestraHe has to know every detail of the music and be able to give the most precise directions with his baton and hands.