Other types of networks: Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFC

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Mobile Communications Chapter 10: Support for Mobility

Other Types of Networks:Bluetooth, Zigbee, & NFCCS303

Dilum BandaraDilum.Bandara@uom.lk

Slides adapted from Prof. Dr. Ing. Jochen Schiller

Universitt KarlsruheInstitut fr TelematikMobilkommunikationSS 1998Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. G. KrgerE. Dorner / Dr. J. Schiller1Why?Up to now, we have concentrated on TCP/IPBecause TCP/IP is the most popular type of networkHowever, its not always the best optionNot all networks need IPOverkill due to high footprintSpecific/custom protocols are suitable for other applicationsSNA, DECNet, Novell Netware, NetBEUI, WAP oldBluetooth, ZigBee, Fiber channel, NFC recent

2Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture created in 1974. It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resourcesDECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation, originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputersNetWare is a computer network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various services on a personal computer, with network protocols based on the archetypal Xerox Network Systems stack. The original NetWare product in 1983 supported clients running both CP/M and MS-DOS, ran over a proprietary star network topology and was based on a Novell-built file serverIn 1985, IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator was produced to allow NetBIOS-aware applications from the PC-Network era to work over this new design. This emulator, named NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI), expanded the base NetBIOS API with, among other things, the ability to deal with the greater node capacity of token ring.

None of the solutions we are going to discuss uses TCP/IPUniversitt KarlsruheInstitut fr TelematikMobilkommunikationSS 1998Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. G. KrgerE. Dorner / Dr. J. Schiller2

Protocols ConsideredBluetoothZigBeeNear Field Communication (NFC)3Source: http://mwrf.com/active-components/nfc-prepares-wide-adoption Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1Introduced toReplace cablesMultiparty data exchangePersonal trusted deviceDeveloped by EricssonNow managed by Bluetooth Special Interest Group4

Bluetooth (Cont.)2.4 2.48 GHz ISM bandRange 10mBandwidth 2.1 Mbps (shared) (version 2.0)Version 4.0 Includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed & Bluetooth low energy protocolsBluetooth high speed based on Wi-FiClassic Bluetooth based on legacy Bluetooth protocolsLow power consumptionFound in mobile phones, laptops, computer peripherals, printers, etc.

5Bluetooth Applications6

Source: www.anwsoft.com.tw/Products_Bluetooth_Solutions.html Stick N FindBluetooth Protocol Stack7

Source: http://withfriendship.com/user/sathvi/bluetooth-stack.php Sdp service discovery protocolTCS (Telephone Control protocol Specification7Protocols & Usage Models8PPPRFCOMMTCP/IPBasebandL2CAPOBEXIrMCTCS-BINAudioSyncDial-upnet.Usage ModelsFileTransferAT-commandsFaxHeadsetLANAccessCordlessPhoneSDPLMPUniversitt KarlsruheInstitut fr TelematikMobilkommunikationSS 1998Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. G. KrgerE. Dorner / Dr. J. Schiller8Bluetooth Protocol Stack (Cont.)9

Other Key LayersLink Management Protocol (LMP)Set-up & control of radio link between 2 devicesLogical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)Multiplex multiple logical connections between 2 devices using different higher-level protocolsProvides segmentation & reassembly of on-air packetsService Discovery Protocol (SDP)Allows a device to discover services offered by other devices, & their associated parametersBaseband layerPhysical layerManages physical channels & linksError correction, data whitening, hop selection, & security10Bluetooth Applications/ProfilesSet of application protocolsDefinitions of possible applications & general behaviorsResides on top of Bluetooth core specification & (optionally) additional protocolsExample profilesHands-Free Profile (HFP)Basic Printing Profile (BPP)Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)File Transfer Profile (FTP)Human Interface Device Profile (HID)Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP) OBEX

11Baseband Layer Bluetooth PiconetThrough masterNo slave-to-slave communicationUp to 7 active slaves 255 parked slaves12

Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure-your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect-your-data/6139987

Baseband Layer Bluetooth ScatternetBy connecting 2+ piconets13Source: www.techrepublic.com/article/secure-your-bluetooth-wireless-networks-and-protect-your-data/6139987 ZigBeeIEEE 802.15.4 covers physical layer & MAC layer of low-rate WPANWPAN Wireless Personal Area NetworkAdds network construction, application services, & more on top of IEEE 802.15.4Star networks, peer-to-peer/mesh networks, & cluster-tree networksBy ZgBee AllianceVery low power consumption long battery lifeLow data rateLow complexity circuits & small size low cost14

ZigBee ApplicationsTELECOM SERVICESm-commerceinfo servicesobject interaction (Internet of Things)ZigBeeWireless Control that Simply Works


securityHVAClighting controlaccess controlirrigation


asset mgtprocess controlenvironmentalenergy mgt


securityHVACAMRlighting controlaccess controlpatient monitoringfitness monitoring

15Source: ZgBee AllianceHVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioningAutomatic Meter Reading (AMR)

15ZigBee Protocol Stack16Source: www.sena.com/products/industrial_zigbee/zigbee_summary.php

IEEE 802.15.4 Devce TypesDefined by IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN)Full Functional Device (FFD)Reduced Functional Device (RFD)FFD can work as a PAN coordinator, as a coordinator, or as a simple deviceRFD for applications that dont need to transmit large volumes of data & have to communicate only with a specific FFDFFD can communicate with either another FFD or a RFD17ZigBee Topologies18

Source: http://wireless.arcada.fi/MOBWI/material/PAN_5_2.html ZigBee Topologies (Cont.)1. Star TopologyProsEasy to synchronizeLow latencyConsSmall scale2. Mesh/P2P TopologyProsRobust multi-hop communicationMulti-path communicationFlexible networkLower latencyConsRoute discovery is costlyNeeds to store routing table

19ZigBee Topologies (Cont.)3. Cluster Tree TopologyProsLow routing costMulti-hop communicationScalableConsRoute reconstruction is costlyLatency may be quite longRoot not becomes a single point of failure20Physical & MAC Layers2 different services are defined in 802.15.4Data serviceControls radio Tx/Rx of PPDUs & MPDUsManagement service Energy detection in the channelClear channel assesment before sending the messagesLink Quality Indication (LQI) for the received packetsIf coordinator Manages network beacons, PAN association & disassociation, frame validation, & acknowledgmentSupport device security

21868/868.6 MHz for Europe 902/928 MHz for North America 2400/2483.5 MHz worldwide21

Traffic-Modes Device to PAN CoordinatorBeacon modeBeacon send periodicallyCoordinator & end device can go to sleepLowest energy consumptionPrecise timing neededBeacon period (ms-min)22Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)22Transmission from a device to a coordinatorThe device first listens to the beacon. On finding the beacon, it synchronizes first to the superframe structure. This process lets it know the start and end time of the Contention access period. The device will now compete with its peers for a share of the channel. On its turn, it will transmit the data to the coordinator. The coordinator may reply back with an acknowledgement, if it is not optional.

Traffic-Modes Device to PAN Coordinator (Cont.)Non-Beacon modeCoordinator/routers have to stay awakeHeterogeneous networkAsymmetric power23Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)23Data Transfer From PAN Coordnator24

Source: IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (2006)Transmission from a Coordinator to a DeviceThe coordinator has data to be transmitted to the device. It indicates this in the pending address fields of its beacon. Devices tracking the beacons, decode the pending address fields. If a device finds its address listed among the pending address fields, it realizes it has data to be received from the coordinator. It issues a Data-Request Command to the coordinator. The coordinator replies with an acknowledgement. If there is data to be sent to the device, it would transmit the data. If acknowledgements are not optional, the device would respond with an acknowledgement.24Network LayerDistributed address assignmentTree structure or self managed by higher layer16-bit network space divided among child routersChild routers divide there space again for their childrenDepends onMaximum child count per parentMaximum child-routers per parentMaximum network depth2525Network Layer (Cont.)Route discoveryFind or update route between specific source & destinationStarted if no active route present in routing tableBroadcast routing request (RREQ) packetsGenerates routing table entries for hops to sourceEndpoint router responds with Routing response (RREP) packetRoutes generated for hops to destinationRouting table entry generated in source device2626Route DiscoveryABRREQRREP12342152727Network Layer (Cont.)RoutingCheck if routing table entry existsInitiate route discovery if possibleHierarchical routing as fallbackRoute maintenanceTrack failed deliveries to neighborsInitiate route repair when threshold reachedCareful with network load!In case of total connectivity lossOrphaning procedureRe-association with network2828ZigBee ProfilesDescribes a common language for exchanging dataDefines offered services Device interoperability across different m