Fibres for the next generation

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FIBRES FOR THE NEXT GENERATIONRajkumar R Shinkar (D.K.T.Es textile and engineering institute)Rajesh S Sahu (D.K.T.Es textile and engineering institute)First year B.text (T.T)


Next generation of textile fibresBiodegradable fibresLyocell fibresSea cellSmartcelPoly lactic acid (PLA)Bacterial celluloseBacterial polyesterBiosteelSoya protein fibre (SPF)

High performance fibresDyneemaHygraGoretex


Biodegradable fibres

Cry of the timeImproved properties.Research and development across the globe


2.1 LYOCELL (1st biodegradable manmade fibre)

First in a new generation of cellulosic fibres.Lyocell Utilises renewable resources as raw materials.High physical performance makes it a universally applicable fibre. Even ideal for nonwovensIt is also comfortable next to the skin.PRODUCTION PROCESSSolvent spinning method it is made with out the formation of intermediate compound.

RAW MATERIAL:Principally Oak & eucalyptus trees from sustainably managed forests.

Oak trees


APPLICATIONS:Fabrics of all kindsNon wovenTechnical textilesBattery separators MembranesPaper

Lyocell applications


2.2 SEACELLSeaweed available in abundant with lot of good properties.The fabrics produced by seaweed have antimycotic and antibacterial properties.Sea Cell is a lyocell-like cellulosic fibre.It will use the natural attributes of seaweed and silver to add benefits, as silver is naturally anti-microbial.

RAW MATERIAL:Seaweed extract combined with silver ions incorporated together.

Seacell composition


PRODUCTION PROCESS:modified lyocell process

APPLICATIONS:Improvement of blood supply of the skin, activate the meta-bolism.Sportswear, undergarments, socks, work clothes and household fabrics.Fabrics for allergy sufferers and hygiene articles.Anti-inflammatory

Anti microbial fabric


2.3 SMARTCELLSmartcel fibre is a PCM (Phase Change Material) micro composite of the latest manufacturing generation with thermo regulating features.Temperature regulation is assured, providing extraordinary wearing comfort and excellent climate management.Manufactured from renewable sources , thus is 100% biodegradable.

RAW MATERIAL:combination of cellulose with zinc.

PRODUCTION PROCESS:This is also manufactured by lyocell process.

APPLICATION:Sports wearBed textilesprotection against heat or cold in a human bodyAnti inflammatory apparels.

Smart cell fabric


2.4 Polylactic acid (PLA)(PLA) is linear aliphatic thermoplastic polyester derived from 100% renewable sources such as corn, sugarcane.The polymer is 100% compostable.Its life cycle potentially reduces the Earths carbon dioxide level.The product is more sustainable than comparable polymers on the market today.

PRODUCTION PROCESSDirect condensation of lactic acidVia the cyclic intermediate dimer (lactide), through a ring opening process.3. Produced by melt spinning.

APPLICATION:ApparelsHome wareNonwovens: Filtration and separation, Hygiene, Industrial/household wipes Medical applicationsPLA as a plastic

Use of PLA in medical

Use of PLA in madical11

2.5 BACTERIAL CELLULOSEBacterial cellulose is an organic compound with the formula((C6H10O5)n) produced from certain types ofbacteria.produced by bacteria, principally of the genera Acetobacter, SarcinaventriculiandAgro bacterium. Bacterial.microbial cellulose can be tailored to have specific desirable properties.Bacterial cellulose is a versatile structural material, allowing it to be shaped in a variety of ways to satisfy different uses.

RAW MATERIAL:Cellulose can be found in many microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, and algae.

PRODUCTION PROCESS:cellulose can be obtained by:Reactor based productionFermentation production.

APPLICATION:ultra-strength paperfilter membrane in hi-fidelity loudspeakers and headphonesCosmetic industry.Wounddressing, especially in burn cases.Treat wounds from venousulcers.for internal treatments, such asbone graftsand othertissue engineering

LIMITATIONS: Due to the inefficient production process, It is not commercially attractive.

Microbial cellulose pellicle


2.6 BACTERIAL POLYESTERSPolyhydroxyalkanoates, or PHAs, are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.They are produced by thebacteriato store carbon and energy.Polyesters are deposited in the form of highly refractive granules in the cells.

PRODUCTION PROCESSTo produce PHA,PHB a culture of a micro-organism such as Alcaligenes, eutrophus is placed in a suitable medium and fed appropriate nutrients so that it multiplies rapidly.

RAW MATERIALPolyester produced by micro organisms.


APPLICATIONSSutures and suture fastenersRivets, tacks, staples, and screwsBone plates and bone plating systemsSurgical mesh, repair patches, and cardiovascular patchesVein valves, bone marrow scaffoldsSkin substitutes, bone graft substitutes, and wound dressings

Bacterial polyester sutures

2.7 BIOSTEEL (manmade spider silk)Biosteelwas atrademarkname for a high-strength based fibre material made of the recombinantspider silk-like protein extracted from the milk oftransgenicgoats, made by Nexia Biotechnologies7-10 times as strong as steel if compared for the same weight, and can stretch up to 20 times its unaltered size without losing its strength properties.

PRODUCTION PROCESSWith pronuclear microinjection and nuclear transfer technology in the goats system. The milk produced by the transgenic goats contains spider silk proteins.

APPLICATIONSArtificial ligamentsBulletproof vestsImproved car airbagsMore reliable parachutes

2.8 SOYA BEAN PROTEIN FIBRE Soya bean fibre(SPF) has comeback again.This is a rapidly developing area with research being undertaken in several countries, primarily America and China.

PRODUCTION PROCESS:Biochemistry is being used in the production process to modify the structure of soya bean protein while strength is added to the fibre by incorporating polyvinyl alcohol PVA offers the benefits of higher strength and modulus.The fibre is wet spunThe protein is extracted from the soya meal from which oil has already been extracted.

APPLICATIONSApparelsDomestic textilesWinter wearUndergarments



SUPER END APPLICATIONSThe limitations of nature.Demand of the time.Improved properties.


3.1 DYNEEMA (UHMW-PE)Dyneema has been invented by Albert Penning in 1963 but made commercially available by DSM in 1990 by Dr.Piet lemstra.DYNEEMA is ultra high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE,UHMW) a subset of thethermoplasticpolyethylene.It has extremely long chains, with amolecular massusually between 2 and 6 million units.

PRODUCTION PROCESSUHMWPE issynthesizedfrommonomerofethylene.The gel spinning process is used for yarn required for special applications.


APPLICATIONSArmour,personal armour,car armourCut-resistant gloves,Climbing equipment,Suspension lines on sportparachutesandPara gliders,Dyneema was used for the 30-kilometre space tether in the ESA/RussianYoung Engineers' Satellite 2of September, 2007.

Dyneema fibre rope

3.2 HYGRA (porous water absorptive polyester fibre)Recently, highly moisture absorptive & highly moisture releasing nylon was developed by Unitika.When nylon was used for cloths the lack of moisture absorbency caused stuffiness, stickiness & was uncomfortable. Unitika succeeded in making fibre from a highly water absorptive polymer, which can absorb water 35 times the polymer weight, & developed an epoch-making fibre HYGRA. PRODUCTION PROCESSIt can be fibrilized by the melt spinning process.The skin-core structure of HYGRA consists of nylon skin part & hydrophilic core part.

Structure of hygra

Structure of hygra


APPLICATIONSClothes: Sportswear, Socks, UndergarmentsNon-clothes: Life materials, Civil engineering, Construction, Interiors, Industrial materials.

HYGRA-highly water absorptive

3.3 GORETEX (expanded-POLY TETRA FLUORO ETHYLENE)Gore-Tex materials are typically based on thermo-mechanically expanded PTFE and otherfluoropolymerproducts.This membrane has about 9 billionpores per square inch(around 1.4 billion pores per square centimetre). Each pore is approximately 1/20,000 the size of a water droplet, making it impenetrable to liquid water.This membrane has a self cleaning effect as the dirt molecules also cant penetrate or enter the pores due to their extremely small size.

Magnified view of goretex


PRODUCTION PROCESSPTFE is made using anemulsion polymerizationprocess that utilizes the fluoro surfactantPFOA.

APPLICATIONSConservation ofilluminated manuscriptsWater repellentUsed internally in medical applications:- Sutures, Vascular grafts, Heart patches, Synthetic knee ligaments.Water repellent goretex


ConclusionThe present scenario of the textile fibres.Changes taking place due to the need of improved properties in the new genration end applications.Exponential growth of the textile industry, which primarily runs on textile fibres.Textile fibres and polymers will bring about a revolution as they have started replacing the metals.Bright future due to the various R & D activities worldwide


BIBILOGRAPHYBiodegradable and sustainable fibres (Edited by R. S. Blackburn)Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research(march 2005)New Millennium Fibres(Tatsuya Hongu, Glyn O. Phillips a