Drinking Water Treatment Seminar Leesville Middle School
1STARTING WITH THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST GRACIOUS THE MOST MERCIFULLAltafayaz2161@gmail.com
is water..Altafayaz2161@gmail.com2Lemme ask you a General Question First,,,,When you startup your day,Gets up early in the morning,The first thing that you feel Need of __________????
WATER TREATMENT PLANT(RAWAL LAKE )
MR. M.USMAN RAFIQ
4Men gives advice; God gives guidance. (Leonard Ravenhill)Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
STUDENTS PROFILED.A.E 07 CIVILALTAF AYAZ (GROUP LEADER)M. ASIMM. SHAFAQATAWAIS NAJEEBM. NOUMANYASIR SHAHSAFI ULLAHALAMZAIBM.ZEESHAN SHAIKHUSMAN MEHBOOB
Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.5Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
SCHEME OF PRESENTATION
GENERAL IMPORATANCE OF WATER.ROLE OF WATER IN HUMAN LIFE.SOURCES OF WATER.DRINKING WATER IN PAKISTAN.HISTORY OF RAWAL LAKE WATER FILTRATION PLANT.PROCESS OF WATER TREATMENTCOAGULAIONSEDIMENTATIONFILTRATIONDISINFECTIONDIAGRAMETICAL SUMMARYDESIGN ASPECTSTESTS RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
Importance of water
Water is life
Looking at water, you might think that it's the most simple thing around.
Pure water is colorless, odorless, and tasteless.
But it's not at all simple and plain and it is vital for all life on Earth.
Where there is water there is life, and where water is scarce, life has to struggle or just "throw in the towel."
Water is of major importance to all living things.
More than 60 percent of the human body is Water.
A person can survive for about 3-5 weeks without food but only 3-5 days without water.
Therefore the quality of Water we drink is very important.
The Drinking Water should be totally clean, pure and free of any disease causing MICROBES, and thats why it should be properly Treated and DISINFECTED before using it for drinking purpose.ROLE OF WATER IN HUMAN LIFE
88"And God has created every animal from water.(The Noble Quran, 24:45)"Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
Drinking water in PakistanAlthough Pakistan is having safe water supplies i.e60% people have access to safe drinking water and 40% people dont but even then
ACCORDING TO THE REPORT OF W.H.OOne childern dies every minute in pakistan due to the lack of safe drinking water.It was found that 45% of infant deaths have been attributed to diarrhea.25-30% of the diseases are gastro-intestinal in nature.
Where does the water come from?Surface waters (lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) Groundwater (wells).
We (Allah) send down water from the sky in measure an lodged it in the ground and we certainly are able to withdraw it Al Quran (Surah 23, 18-19 Verses)The above verse clarify the complete water cycle i.e., water fall, penetration of water in the soil and evaporation phenomenon.
Surface Water Treatment Plant
Coagulant, pH Adjustment
Disinfectant (Cl2, NaOCl)
HISTORY OF RAWAL LAKE FILTRATION PLANTLOCATION:PARK ROAD CHAK SHEHZAD ISLAMABAD
EXECUTIVE AGENCY: P.H.E DEPTT GOVT OF PUNJAB
INITIAL CONSTRUCTION:1962-1963INITIAL CAPACITY 14 MGD
1ST EXTENSION BY 7MGD:1975-1979EXTENDED CAPACITY:21 MGD
2ND ENTENSION BY 7MGD:2000-2002EXTENDED CAPACITY:28 MGD12Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
HISTORY OF RAWAL LAKE FILTRATION PLANT MAJOR IMPORTANCE: IT WORKS TOTALLY UNDER GRAVITY WHICH IS THE HUGE SAVE OF ELECTRICITY.
OUTLET STREAM:KORANG RIVER.
CATCHMENT AREA:275.2 KM2
SUPLLY TREATEDWATER TO: WHOLE RAWALPINDI REGION 13Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
Water TreatmentINTRODUCTION: Theactorprocessofmakingwatermorepotable or useful,asby purifying,clarifying,softening,or deodorizingit.
Water treatment transforms raw surface and groundwater into safe drinking water.
Water treatment involves two major processes: physical removal of solids and chemical disinfection. 14Pure water is the worlds first and foremost medicine. ~SlovakianAltafayaz2161@gmail.com
Water TreatmentPHYSICAL REMOVAL: It includes the initial stages of water treatment process like coagulation, sedimentation and filtration.Simply in these steps the suspended particles are removed from water
CHEMICAL REMOVAL:In This Stage The Micro Organisms Like Pathogenic Bacteria Or Germs Are Removed From Water .
It includes the Disinfection stage only.
Now let us study the whole treatment process step by step.15Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
Physical and Chemical Treatment
Water Treatment17COAGULATION:It is the settling down of suspended particles, present in water, by using chemicals.
In simple words we can say it is as same as sedimentation stage but just with the addition of a coagulant.
The coagulation is to be adopted when turbidity of water exceeds about 40 P.P.M.
Mostly used coagulant is Alum(Al2 (So4)3,18H2O) because it is cheap, simple in working and better floc former than any other coagulant
It also reduces taste and odor in addition to the turbidity in water.Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
WATER TOWARDS SEDIMENTATION
Coagulation removes dirt and other particles suspended in water. alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky particles called floc which attract the dirt particles. The combinedweight of the dirt and the alums (floc) becomes heavy enough to sinkto the bottom during sedimentation.
Coagulants may used areAluminum sulfate (Alum),Ferrous sulfate,Ferric sulfate Ferric chloride etc.
Water TreatmentSEDIMENTATION:Treatment process in which the velocity of the water is lowered below the suspension velocity and the suspended particles settle out of the water due to gravity.
Also known asSettlingorClarification.
Sedimentation may not be necessary in low turbidity water of less than 10 NTU*.PURPOSE OF SETTLINGTo remove coagulated and flocculated impurities.To remove precipitated impurities after chemical treatment.To settle the sludge (biomass).
22*NTU: Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, A measure of the concentration ofsuspended particulatesin aliquid.Altafayaz2161@gmail.com22
Water TreatmentSEDIMENTATION:Principle of SettlingSuspended solids present in water having specific gravity greater than that of water tends to settle down by gravity.Basin in which the flow is retarded is calledsettling tank.Theoretical average time for which the water is detained in the settling tank is called thedetention period.Usually detention time is taken as 1 hour.
WATER FROM COAGULATION
WATER TOWARDS FILTRATION
Coagulated particles fall, by gravity, through water in a settling tank and accumulate at the bottom of the tank, clearing the water of much of the solid debris and clear water moves to filtration.
Water TreatmentSEDIMENTATION TANK ZONES
SEDIMENTED PARTICLES (LOOKING BROWN)Water Treatment26Altafayaz2161@gmail.com
Water Treatment27FILTRATION:It is a process of allowing water to pass through a thick layer of sand.It has been noticed from experience that during the process of filtration the following effects occur on water:
The suspended and colloidal impurities which are present in water in a finely divided state are removed to a great extent.The number of bacteria present in water is also considerably reduced.
CLASSIFICATION OF FILTERSSlow sand filterRapid sand filterAltafayaz2161@gmail.com
SLOW SAND FILTERRAPID SAND FILTER
TYPES OF FILTERS28
Water TreatmentFILTRATION, DISINFECTION & STORAGE:
FILTRATION: The water passes through filters, some made of layers of sand that helps in removal of smaller particles.
DISINFECTION: A small amount of chlorine is added or some other disinfection method is used to kill microorganisms that may be in the water.
STORAGE: Water is placed in a closed tank or reservoir for disinfection to take pace. The water then flows through pipes to home and business in the community
Water DisinfectionDEF:The filtered water may normally contain some harmful disease producing bacteria in it. These bacteria must be killed in order to make the water safe for drinking. The process of killing these bacteria is known as Disinfection or Sterilization.
NECESSITYWhen water in the filter plant, is still found to contain some of the impurities. These impurities can be grouped as follows:
BacteriaDissolved inorganic saltsColor , odor and tasteIron and manganese
Purpose of disinfection:To make Drinking water free of any disease causing bacteria and microbes.
Methods of disinfection:There are 3 mainly used disinfection methods used at large scale.