01 Basics of Compressed Air A - Introduction & Applications Product Line TrainingProduct Line - Industrial Filtration TechnologyStatus: July 2010
The first known compressorTechnical Data:Compressor:Membrane typePressure Rate: 0,02 0,08 barVolume Flow: 6 m/hSpecial features:Excellent reliabilityMin. maintenance required
with limited application spectrum.
Bellows = First mechanical compressorOpening of temple doors with help of expansion of hot air + displacement of water volume + creation of work / force
Pneumatic catapult use of accumulated energy in a compressed air cylinder
3000 B.C200 B.C100 A.C.First antique compressed air applications
UndergroundPneumatic DeliveryBlastingPneumatic ToolsPaint Spraying
Breathing AirLaser Industry
Food & BeverageCompressed air applications of the last 200 years
Easy transportation of energyEverywhere availableNo return-line required used air can be released to ambientCan be transported over great distance in pipe systems
Easy storage Can be stored in pressure vesselsEnergy is available when compressor is not runningTransportable in areas where no compressed air system is available (e.g. under water)
8LightweightPneumatic componentes are leightweight compared to hydraulic + electrical components
Reliable in operation Long service life of pneumatic componentsCan operate in areas with explosion risk, in rough ambient, at high or low ambient temperatures
Simple Simple structure and function of pneumatic componentesEasy installation and serviceAdvantages
9Safety operationLow potential danger compared to electrical components Low potential risk of component damage when compressed air system is overloaded by high consumption. Pressure drops work energy is not available but no damage on system components.
Flexible working fluidExtremely fast movement possibleInfinitely variable control of velocity, torque and force possibleCompressibility of gaseous medium ensures smooth damping and delay action processes
Electrical EnergyMechanical Energy
Compressed AirMechanical Energy
Cost per m compressed air (related to 7 bar pressure) up to 0,01 (1 Eurocent) at >100 kW installed power up to 0,03 (3 Eurocent) at systems with lower power + high qualityEvery transformation of energy costs money!
Even in well-maintained networks, up to 50% of the generated compressed air is lost by leaks. From a different perspective: up to 50% potential savings are concealed in a system, and we are able to find them. The result: leakage rates and energy costs fall substantiallyCostsUp to 50% potential savings by leakage detection
13Leak Size DiameterCompressed air loss at 8bar operation pressureLostEnergyCosts(0,08 /kWh)mml/minkWh / a (8000 h/a)1750,60384,-1,51501,30832,-22602,001.280,-36004,402.112,-411008,805.632,-5170013,208.448,-
CostsCosts of Compressed Air Leakages
After-cooler, Separators+Filters, Dryers, Pressure Vessels, Valves, Pipelines, Fittings, 7 bar = 6 bar + 1 bar
+ 1 bar + 10% energy costReduced flow Extended running time + 8K additional compression temperature Additional cooling energy neededCompressorDifferential Pressure p = 1 bar7 bar
CostsCosts of Differential Pressure
CostsCosts of Differential Pressure
ApplicationsCompressed Air is an energy form offering an unrivalled range of applications and combining speed, power, presicion and safe handling. These characteristics makes compressed air irreplaceable in many cases.Working and energy airAs an important field of application for compressed air, pneumatics has shown a two-digit growth rate for years. More and more new patents are being filed on compressed-air cylinders, air engines and compressed air valves.
Characteristics of Compressed Air
Compressed Air is the 2nd most used type of energy in industry
In Europe 10% of all electricity (used by industry) is used to produce compressed air.
19Regardless of the applications for filtration technology for which you are responsible: Donaldson is the partner! In decades of close coporation with our customers, we have gathered expert knowledge in nearly all fields of industrial production.
Chemical industryPharma industryElectronics industryAutomotive industryApplications
Bio GasIndustry-specific filtration technology