X-Ray Presentation SMK SMAK Bogor 2014/2015

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1. X-RAY Presentation by: Dwi Nanda Cakra Wiguna Fatimatul Azizah Fauzan Luthfi Agustin Frederick Geovan L.L.R 2. X-Ray Definition X-rays are electromagnetic waves with a wavelength that tends to be very short, but it has enormous energy. X-rays also has a very high penetrating power. In addition, X-ray also has the ability to ionize atoms of the material that is passed. 3. Characteristic of X-ray X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 meters with a frequency ranging from 30x1016 to 30x1019 Hertz and having energy ranging from 120 eV to 120 KeV 4. Inventor Figure of X-Ray X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen. At 8 November 1895 he did X-ray experiment with "Cathode," cathode rays consist of a stream of electrons. Current is produced using a high voltage between the electrodes which are placed at each end of the glass tube in the air almost entirely empty. The cathode ray tube coated with a thick black paper so that even if power is turned on, there is no light that can be seen from the tube. 5. When the tube turned on, he was surprised to see that the light began to appear on the Barium Platinocyanide layer which is located near his bench where he sat like as stimulated by light. He turn off the tube, then the light stops anneal. Because the cathode ray tube is fully closed, Rontgen soon realized that an invisible radiation that must emmited from the tube when the cathode turned on. Because this is a mysterious thing, he called radiation seemed that "X-rays" which is the usual mathematical symbol for the unknown. 6. Mechanism of X-Ray Tube X-rays generated from the instrument which has a pair of electrodes. This tube has an anode and a cathode that is different in the electrical potential (high voltage). The workings of this tube, the cathode filament is heated by passing an electric current through it. By doing so, the potential energy of orbiting electron cathode arround atomic nucleus will be converted into kinetic energy. As a result, electrons in the the cathode constituent atoms will be excited out because of the force between electrons with the atomic nucleus which the pull causes by the electric charge difference, becomes smaller than the centrifugal force electrons to the central atom that causes by the spinning motion of the electron orbiting, pull the electron out of its orbit. Electron that exited, throwed through the vacuum tube, without any rsistance. The Electron colliding Anode constituent atoms, emit much of energies, that containing 99% of heat and 1% of x-ray. 7. How the X-Ray is produced 1. First , the cathoda tube is heated by an electric charge from the transformator . 2. Because of the heat , electron from the cathode tube apart toward the anode is made of heat resistant metal . 3. Electron suddenly stopped on the target , and then they form hot (99%) and x-ray (1%) . 4. The x-ray are formed will be direct to window 5. High heat from the impact of electron removed by the cooling radiator . 8. Characteristic X-Ray This characteristic X-Ray occurs when electrons from higher energy interacted with electrons which are in the atom. This phenomenon caused electron transition and emmited energies which known as photon. 9. Bremstrahlung X-Ray It happens when electrons with higher kinetic energy interacted with the nuclei of atoms. The particle will absorb the electrons energy (its movement got stalled) and the orientation of the movement will turned to go around the particle. 10. X-Ray Application in Daily Life CT Scan Astronomy Observation (X- Ray Telescope) Construction Purpose Determination of Human Skeleton Density 11. CT Scan 12. Astronomy Observation (X-Ray Telescope) 13. Construction Purpose (Ground Penetrating Radar) 14. Determination of Human Skeleton Density (Bone Densitometer) 15. CT Scan (Computerized Tomography) During CT scan work, X-rays generated by the X-ray tube and emitt rotated around the patient. Then the X- rays passed through the patient's body to the detector, which is highly dependent on the type and model of the CT scanner, probably consisting of xenon gas ionization or crystal (such as cesium-iodine or cadmium-tungsten). During one rotation detector generates an electrical signal, which is generated after X-ray irradiation This electrical signal is transferred to the computer, processed and reconstructed into images using algorithms that have been previously programmed. Each round of the X-ray tube and detector reconstructed into images that are referenced as slices. Presented in the form of cross-sectional slices of the detailed anatomy of the body, and allows the anatomical arrangement can be visualized. 16. Conculsion The x-ray beam has 10-12 -10-8 meters wavelength and frequency ranging from 30x1015 to 30x1019 Hertz X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen discovered by accident when he was "playing" with the electrode tube. Plate made of Barium platinosianida near his seat tube to glow when the light is turned on impermeable electrode. Tube cathode and anode electrodes have vastly different electrical potential (high voltage). X-rays can penetrate the solid substance. Penetration depends on the density of the substance penetrate. X-rays have several properties, including to penetrate, absorbed, refracted, causing fluorescence, ionize materials penetrate. 17. Thank You 18. Bibliography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tqGmqRrxajQ http://www.slideshare.net/endangjmanik/sinar-x http://margionoabdil.blogspot.com/2013/11/cara-kerja-ct-scan-dan- perkembangannya.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/11_xrays.html http://indonesiagreennature.wordpress.com