World Wars Compared CAUSES

World Wars Compared - Causes

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World Wars ComparedCAUSES

Causes of World War I

(interpretations anyone?)

The Environment for the Great

War was created by • ALLIANCES

In order to balance power and “protect” themselves, the nations of Europe were in military alliances with other nations.

War was in the air?• NATIONALISM

Patriotism and loyalty were on the rise

among many groups in Europe.

• IMPERIALISM drew more regions into the war

There were of course many other

contributing factors to the outbreak of

WWI, for example:List of Events:

1870-1871: Franco-Prussian War

1899-1900: Boer War

1900: German Navy Law

1905-6:First Moroccan Crisis

1908: Daily Telegraph article

1908-9:Bosnian Crisis

1911:Agadir Affair (Second Moroccan Crisis)

1912: First Balkan War

1913: Second Balkan War

These are examples of conflicts and increased tensions between major European powers prior to the outbreak of the First World War.

Game on!

• Assassination of

Archduke of

Austria-Hungary by

a Serbian

nationalist .

• Austria-Hungary

blamed the Serbian

government and

prepared for


Game on!

• Germany assured Austria-Hungary of

full assistance in a war.

• Austria-Hungary declared war on


• Russia declared war on Austria-


• Germany declared war on Russia and


• The Ottoman Empire declared war on

Russia and the other Allies in hopes of

regaining land it had lost.

• Germany moved troops into Belgium to

invade France. Belgians resisted.

• Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany and the other Central Powers.

• AUGUST, 1914 – The Great War began!

WWI - “A Family Feud”Central Powers:• Wilhelm II - the

Kaiser of Germany• Franz Joseph - the

Emperor of Austria-Hungary

Allies:• Nicholas II - the Tsar

of Russia• George V - King of

England• Albert - King of


• Wilhelm II, Nicholas II, and George V were COUSINS

• Albert was their SECOND COUSIN

• Franz Joseph was their GREAT UNCLE

ALSO:• Alexandra, Nicholas

II’s wife, was a cousin of Wilhelm II, George V, and her husband Nicholas II.

• She was a Germanprincess.

“The War (WWI) was decided in the

first twenty days of fighting, and all

that happened afterwards consisted

in battles which, however formidable

and devastating, were but desperate

and vain appeals against the decision

of Fate.”Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965), British

statesman, writer. Preface to E. L. Spears,

Liaison 1914 (1930).

World War II

(same song, second verse?)

The Environment for

World War II was created by:

• Resentment about the Treaty of Versailles – in the peace treaty that ended WWI, Germany was “punished”, and Italy & Japan didn’t gain the territory they thought they deserved.

Environment for WAR:

• Global Economic Depression – the most severe and widespread economic crisis of history took place in the 1930s.

Environment for WAR:

• Economic problems allowed leaders with radical ideas to gain a following in Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, and elsewhere.

Fascism – “Conservative Revolutionaries”

In Germany, Italy, & Japan? (& Spain)

leaders offered a “new” political ideology

FOR: Strong authority & central

government, nationalism, aggression

AGAINST: “enemies”, individualism,

feminism, parliamentary democracy,


Environment for WAR:

• German, Japanese, Italian, (& Soviet Russia) militarism, nationalism, and desire for expansion led to aggression.

Japan invaded China / SE Asia

Britain, France, and the U.S. did NOT

want war again (for economic, political,

social reasons).

And then war

• Japan invaded China in force in 1937.

• Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939.

• Nazi Germany and Italy invaded France and everywhere else they could.

• Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 and everywhere else they could.

World War II experiences –

Soviet Union China