Overview of the women's movement from 1840 to present.
Text of Womens Movement & Comparable Worth
1. The Continuing Struggle for Comparable Worth: Women in America Diversity in the Workplace Psych 701, Fall 2008 UW- Stout, Menomonie WI Presented by Lynnea White
2. Our Founding Feminist Mothers 1840
Elizabeth Cady Stanton >
Mary Ann McClintock
Martha C. Wright
American Revolution, 70 years earlier
Patriots freedom from tyranny?
Women had taken equally tremendous risks
3. Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman."
"A discussion of the rights of animals would be
regarded with far more complacency by many of what
are called the wise and the good of our land, than
would be a discussion of the rights of woman."
Stanton drafted eleven resolutions
All passed unanimously except for woman suffrage
When national victory came in 1920, seventy-two years after the first organized demand in 1848, only one signer of the Seneca Falls Declaration-Charlotte Woodward, a young worker in a glove manufactory -had lived long enough to cast her ballot.
4. Declaration of Sentiments Elizabeth Cady Stanton "injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman
Married women were legally dead in the eyes of the law
Women were not allowed to vote
Women had to submit to laws when they had no voice in their formation
Married women had no property rights
Husbands had legal power over and responsibility for their wives to the extent that they could imprison or beat them with impunity
Divorce and child custody laws favored men, giving no rights to women
Women had to pay property taxes although they had no representation in the levying of these taxes
Most occupations were closed to women and when women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earned
Women were not allowed to enter professions such as medicine or law
Women had no means to gain an education since no college or university would accept women students
With only a few exceptions, women were not allowed to participate in the affairs of the church
Women were robbed of their self-confidence and self-respect, and were made totally dependent on men
5. The 19 th Amendment Passed by Congress June 4, 1919 Ratified August 18, 1920
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state
on account of sex.
6. Susan B. Anthony
1849: Daughters of Temperance
1854: American Anti-slavery Society
1868-70: "The Revolution"
equal pay for women
1872-73: Arrested twice for trying to vote
1869-90: National Woman Suffrage Association
1890-06: National American Woman Suffrage Association
7. The Second Wave of Feminism Birth Control Movement
Woman's right to control her own body
Reproduction and sexuality
Endorsed educating women about existing birth control methods
Reproductive freedom for modern women
1936 : Supreme Court declassified birth control info as being obscene!
1965 : Married couples could obtain contraceptives legally!
8. Feminist Advocates of the 1940-60s
Director of Womens Bureau of the Dept. of Labor
President John F. Kennedy
Civil Rights Movement
Committee on the Status of Women
National Organization for Women
National Abortion Rights Action League
National Women's Political Caucus
9. The problem that has no name"
Advocated: a reasonable, moderate, heterosexual, family-loving not family- destroying, man- loving not man-hating approach
The Feminine Mystique
- epitomizes an earlier, less sophisticated and less inclusive version of feminism. It is the feminism of a white, privileged middle class woman who was unaware of the lives of women outside the confines of safe and prosperous suburbs.
10. The Threat of the Red Menace
Contributing physicist on the Manhattan Project
MaCarthyism and involvement in radical politics
Would undercut impact of book
Jeopardize the Womens Movement
"I wish to highlight the damage McCarthyism did to progressive social movements in the 1940s and early 1950s, and especially to feminism, which it forced underground but could not destroy.
Historically: women primarily responsible for home and child care
40% fewer years than men
Flexibility for home demands
Reduce economic efficiency and would even reduce employment opportunities for women
Specific fields predominantly employ women
12. The Equal Pay Act of 1963
Requires that men and women be given equal pay for equal work in the same establishment. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. It is job content , not job titles, that determines whether jobs are substantially equal.
Skill * Effort * Responsibility * Working Conditions * Establishment
13. The Past 45 Years
1964: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
1966: National Organization for Women
1972: Title IX in the Education Codes
1978: Civil Service Reform Act
14. Women's Financial Liberation
Do you realize that just 25 years ago married women were not issued credit cards in their own name? That most women could not get a bank loan without a male co-signer? That women working full time earned fifty-nine cents to every dollar earned by men?
Help-wanted ads in newspapers were segregated into "Help wanted - women" and "Help wanted- men."
15. The Wage Gap 1988 ratio of men to womens hourly wages *Doctorates in economics > 5% gap