Womens Movement & Comparable Worth

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Overview of the women's movement from 1840 to present.

Text of Womens Movement & Comparable Worth

  • 1. The Continuing Struggle for Comparable Worth: Women in America Diversity in the Workplace Psych 701, Fall 2008 UW- Stout, Menomonie WI Presented by Lynnea White
  • 2. Our Founding Feminist Mothers 1840
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton >
    • Mary Ann McClintock
    • Martha C. Wright
    • Lucretia Mott
    • Jane Hunt
      • American Revolution, 70 years earlier
        • Patriots freedom from tyranny?
        • Women had taken equally tremendous risks
  • 3. Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman."
      • "A discussion of the rights of animals would be
      • regarded with far more complacency by many of what
      • are called the wise and the good of our land, than
      • would be a discussion of the rights of woman."
      • Fredrick Douglas
      • Stanton drafted eleven resolutions
        • All passed unanimously except for woman suffrage
    • When national victory came in 1920, seventy-two years after the first organized demand in 1848, only one signer of the Seneca Falls Declaration-Charlotte Woodward, a young worker in a glove manufactory -had lived long enough to cast her ballot.
  • 4. Declaration of Sentiments Elizabeth Cady Stanton "injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman
    • Married women were legally dead in the eyes of the law
    • Women were not allowed to vote
    • Women had to submit to laws when they had no voice in their formation
    • Married women had no property rights
    • Husbands had legal power over and responsibility for their wives to the extent that they could imprison or beat them with impunity
    • Divorce and child custody laws favored men, giving no rights to women
    • Women had to pay property taxes although they had no representation in the levying of these taxes
    • Most occupations were closed to women and when women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earned
    • Women were not allowed to enter professions such as medicine or law
    • Women had no means to gain an education since no college or university would accept women students
    • With only a few exceptions, women were not allowed to participate in the affairs of the church
    • Women were robbed of their self-confidence and self-respect, and were made totally dependent on men
  • 5. The 19 th Amendment Passed by Congress June 4, 1919 Ratified August 18, 1920
    • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
    • be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state
    • on account of sex.
  • 6. Susan B. Anthony
    • 1849: Daughters of Temperance
    • 1854: American Anti-slavery Society
    • 1868-70: "The Revolution"
      • equal pay for women
    • 1872-73: Arrested twice for trying to vote
    • 1869-90: National Woman Suffrage Association
    • 1890-06: National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • 7. The Second Wave of Feminism Birth Control Movement
    • Margaret Sanger:
      • Woman's right to control her own body
        • Reproduction and sexuality
        • Endorsed educating women about existing birth control methods
          • Reproductive freedom for modern women
      • 1936 : Supreme Court declassified birth control info as being obscene!
      • 1965 : Married couples could obtain contraceptives legally!
  • 8. Feminist Advocates of the 1940-60s
    • Esther Peterson
      • Director of Womens Bureau of the Dept. of Labor
    • President John F. Kennedy
      • Civil Rights Movement
    • Eleanor Roosevelt
      • Committee on the Status of Women
    • Betty Friedan
      • National Organization for Women
      • National Abortion Rights Action League
      • National Women's Political Caucus
  • 9. The problem that has no name"
            • Betty Friedan
            • Advocated: a reasonable, moderate, heterosexual, family-loving not family- destroying, man- loving not man-hating approach
            • The Feminine Mystique
    • - epitomizes an earlier, less sophisticated and less inclusive version of feminism. It is the feminism of a white, privileged middle class woman who was unaware of the lives of women outside the confines of safe and prosperous suburbs.
  • 10. The Threat of the Red Menace
    • David Bohm
      • Contributing physicist on the Manhattan Project
      • Friedans boyfriend
    • MaCarthyism and involvement in radical politics
      • Dangerous
      • Would undercut impact of book
      • Jeopardize the Womens Movement
    • "I wish to highlight the damage McCarthyism did to progressive social movements in the 1940s and early 1950s, and especially to feminism, which it forced underground but could not destroy.
    • Daniel Horowitz
  • 11. Opposition
    • Historically: women primarily responsible for home and child care
        • 40% fewer years than men
        • Higher education/training
        • Flexibility for home demands
    • Reduce economic efficiency and would even reduce employment opportunities for women
        • Specific fields predominantly employ women
  • 12. The Equal Pay Act of 1963
    • Requires that men and women be given equal pay for equal work in the same establishment. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. It is job content , not job titles, that determines whether jobs are substantially equal.
    • Skill * Effort * Responsibility * Working Conditions * Establishment
  • 13. The Past 45 Years
    • 1964: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
    • 1966: National Organization for Women
    • 1972: Title IX in the Education Codes
    • 1978: Civil Service Reform Act
  • 14. Women's Financial Liberation
    • Do you realize that just 25 years ago married women were not issued credit cards in their own name? That most women could not get a bank loan without a male co-signer? That women working full time earned fifty-nine cents to every dollar earned by men?
    • Help-wanted ads in newspapers were segregated into "Help wanted - women" and "Help wanted- men."
  • 15. The Wage Gap 1988 ratio of men to womens hourly wages *Doctorates in economics > 5% gap
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