Types and Elements of Poetry

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  • 1.The Wonderful World of Poetry

2. What is 3. Poetry is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. Poetry is the chiseled marble of language; it's a paint-spattered canvas - but the poet uses words instead of paint, and the canvas is you. 4. Elements of Poetry 5. Elements of poetry can be defined as a set of instruments used to create a poem. Many of these were created thousands of years ago and have been linked to ancient story tellings. They help bringimagery and emotionto poetry, stories, and dramas. 6.

  • Stanza
  • A unit of lines grouped together
  • Similar to a paragraph in prose

7. A Stanza consists of two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of a poem. The stanzas of a poem are usually of the same length and follow the same pattern of meter and rhyme and are used like paragraphs in a story. Some different types of stanzas are as follows: Couplets- Couplets are stanzas of only two lines which usually rhyme 8. Tercets - Tercets are stanzas of three lines. The three lines may or may not have the same end rhyme. If all three lines rhyme, this type of tercet is called a triplet. Quatrains- Quatrains are stanzas of four lines which can be written in any rhyme scheme. 9. From Second Satire Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-42) My mothers maids, when they did sew and spin, They sang sometimes a song of the field mouse, That for because their livelihood was but so thinWould needs go seek her townish sisters house. She thought herself endured to much pain: The stormy blasts her cave so sore did souse... 10. Couplet A stanza consisting of two lines that rhyme

      • Whether or not we find what we are seeking
      • is idle, biologically speaking.
      • Edna St. Vincent Millay(at the end of a sonnet)

11. Quatrain A stanza consisting of four lines

    • Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring
    • Your Winter garment of Repentance fling:
      • The Bird of Time has but a little way
    • To flutter--and the Bird is on the Wing.

12. Alternating Quatrain-a four line stanza rhyming "abab." From W.H. Auden's "Leap Before You Look" The sense of danger must notdisappear :a The way is certainly both short andsteep ,b However gradual it looks fromhere ;a Look if you like, but you will have toleap .b 13. Envelope Stanza - a quatrain with the rhyme scheme "abba", such that lines 2 and 3 are enclosed between the rhymes of lines 1 and 4. Two of these stanzas make up the Italian Octave used in the Italian sonnet. This is from Auden's "Look Before You Leap" The worried efforts of the busyheap ,a The dirt, the imprecision, and thebeer bProduce a few smart wisecracks everyyear ;b Laugh if you can, but you will have toleap .a 14. Tone/Mood The attitude a poet takes toward his/her subject * refers to the writer's attitude towards the subject of a literary work as indicated in the work itself. One way to think about tone in poetry is to consider the speaker's literal "tone of voice": just as with tone of voice, a poem's tone may indicate an attitude of joy, sadness, solemnity, silliness, frustration, anger, puzzlement, etc. 15. Imagery Representation of the five senses: sight, taste, touch, sound, and smellCreates mental images about a poems subject 16. Visual imagery:visual descriptions so vivid they seem to come to life in the reader's mind's when they are read, as in the description of a very old fish in Elizabeth Bishop's poem titled "The Fish": Here and there his brown skin hung in strips like ancient wall-paper, and its pattern of darker brown was like wall-paper:shapes like full-blown rosesstrained and lost through age 17. Auditory imagery: descriptions of sound so vivid the reader seems almost to hear them while reading the poem. For example, Alexander Pope contrasts the gentle sounds of a whispering wind and a soft-running stream with the harsher sound of waves crashing on the shore in "Sound and Sense": The sound must seem an echo to the sense: Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently bows, And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flow; But when the loud surges lash the sounding shore, The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar. (365-69) 18. Images of smell (olfactory imagery):descriptions of smells so vivid they seem almost to stimulate the reader's own sense of smell while reading, as in the poem, "Root Cellar," by Theodore Roethke: And what a congress of stinks! Roots ripe as old bait, Pulpy stems, rank, silo-rich, Leaf-mold, manure, lime, piled against slippery planks. Nothing would give up life: Even the dirt kept breathing a small breath. (5-11) 19. Tactile or "physical" imagery:descriptions conveying a strong, vivid sense of touch or physical sensation that the reader can almost feel himself or herself while reading, as in Robert Frost's description of standing on a ladder in "After Apple Picking": "My instep arch not only keeps the ache, / It keeps the pressure of a ladder-round. / I feel the ladder sway as the boughs bend" (21-23). Or in the sensation of touch (and possibly taste) in the fourth stanza of Helen Chasin's poem, "The WordPlum ": 20. The wordplumis delicious pout and push, luxury of self-love, and savoring murmur full in the mouth and falling like fruit taut skin pierced, bitten, provoked intojuice, and tart flesh. (1-8). 21. Refrain The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at certain intervals, usually at the end of each stanzaSimilar to the chorus in a song 22. *The word 'Refrain' derives from the Old French wordrefraindremeaning to repeat.*Refrain Poetry Term is a phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated throughout a poem, usually after each stanza.*A famous example of a refrain are the words " Nothing More" and Nevermore which are repeated in The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe. 23. The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sittingOn the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floorShall be lifted nevermore. 24. Repetition A word or phrase repeated within a line or stanzaExample: gazed and gazed Sometimes, repetition reinforces or even substitutes for meter (the beat), the other chief controlling factor of poetry. 25. Humpty Dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; All the King's horses and all the King's men Couldn't put Humpty together againThe repetition of a phrase in poetry may have an incantatory effect as in the opening lines of T. S. Eliot's "Ash-Wednesday": Because I do not hope to turn again Because I do not hope Because I do not hope to turn.... 26. Sometimes the effect of a repeated phrase in a poem will be to emphasize a development or change by means of the contrast in the words following the identical phrases. For example, the shift from the distant to the near, from the less personal to the more personal is emphasized in Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" by such a repetition of phrases: I looked upon the rotting sea,And drew my eyes away; I looked upon the rotting deck, And there the dead men lay. 27. Rhyme Scheme The pattern in which end rhyme occursRhymes are types of poems which have the the repetition of the same or similar sounds at the end of two or more words most often at the ends of lines. This technique makes the poem easy to remember and is therefore often used in Nursery Rhymes. There are several derivatives of the term rhyme which include Double rhyme, Triple rhyme, Rising rhyme, Falling rhyme, Perfect and Imperfect rhymes. 28. Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the King's horses, And all the King's men Couldn't put Humpty together again! 29. Theme The theme of the poem talks about the central idea, the thought behind what the poet wants to convey. A theme can be anything from a description about a person or thing, a thought or even a story. In short a theme stands for whatever the poem is about. 30. Symbolism A poem often conveys feelings, thoughts and ideas using symbols, this technique is known as symbolism. A symbol in poetry can stand for anything and makes the reader take a systematic approach which helps him/her look at things in a different light. A symbol is a poetry style that is usually thought of in the beginning. 31. *poetry has developed over hundreds of years, certain symbolic meanings have attached themselves to such things as colors, places, times, and animals.*A list of these common symbols and their meanings follows. The list does not exhaust the possible meanings and associations of a symbol or metaphor in any particular poem. You cannot merely plug these meanings into a poem and expect to understand the poem completely. Your own knowledge, associations, and experience are what will lead you to a deep and personal connection to any poem . 32. Sleepis often related to death.Dreamsare linked to the future or fate.Seasonsoften represent ages: spring--youth, summer--prime of life, autumn--middle age, winter--old age or death.Wateris sometimes linked to the idea of birth or purification.Colors are often linked to emotions: red--anger, blue--happiness, green--jealousy. They are also used to represent states of being: black--death or evil, white--purity or innocence, green--growth. 33. Snakes and gunsare often phallic;caves and underwaterimages often womb-like;nature imagery , in general, is often associated with the mothe