Thinking about teaching efl in the 21st century

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  • 1. Isabela Villas BoasCasa Thomas Jefferson

2. A few disclaimers:- This is not a talk that Iremoved from my shelf oftalks;-This is not the definitive guideto 21st Century learning andteaching;- I am not an expert who willfill your empty heads withmy encyclopedic knowledge;- There are many, many waysto discuss this topic; mine isjust one way, my way... 3. English inLearningTeaching the 21stin the 21st in the 21st Century Century Century 4. More people use English today than have used any other language in the history of the world.(David Crystal, 1997)Crystal, D. (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 5. Kachrus three circles (1986) Expanding circle Outer circle Inner circleKachru, B.B. (1986). The alchemy of English: The spread, functions and models of non-native English.Oxford: Pergamon. 6. McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress. 7. Linguistic and cultural formsexpressed through ELF arelikely to be hybrid, dynamicand continuously adapting tolocal needs, global influences,and the demands ofcommunicating acrosscultures.Baker, Will. The cultures of English as a lingua franca. TESOLQuarterly, 43 (4), December 2009 , 567-592(26). 8. Can non-native varieties by accepted as standard? How much grammatical variation is possible? Can non-native but intelligible pronunciation be accepted as standard? What about pragmatic and discourse variation? Is a common core possible? Has the pluricentricity of English been reflected in ELT materials and international tests? Shouldnt native speakers also learn how to use EIL?Clyne and Sharifian (2008). English as an Internatinal Language:Challenges and Possibilities. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics.28.1-28.16. DOI: 10.2104/aral/0828. 9. Of course, in one sense the problem goes away ifyou re-construe the goals of instruction as beingthose that are defined by the learner and driven bythe learners needs, rather than beingpredetermined by the curriculum designer or thecoursebook writer. If you take an ESP approach, forexample, and, start off by identifying the kinds ofcontexts the learner is going to operate in, withwhom and for what purposes, using what kinds oftexts and registers, at what degree of intelligibility,in combination with what other languages, andemploying what kinds of skills and strategies, youdont have to label the goals as EFL, ESL, ESP, ELF orEIL or anything! Leave the labelling to thesociolinguists.Thornbury, Scott (2011). E is for ELF. An A-Z of ELT. Web. April 3, 2011. 10. ELF as a FunctionEvery classroom activity, every material already has the potentialto become part of an ELF pedagogy. What teachers need to do islook at those elements critically, asking important questions suchas,What variation might there be to this form/utterance/interaction/habit?How can I better present such variation to my students?If we change the context of this particular interaction, what else will need tochange?Who are the participants in this interaction? What do we know about them?How does this kind of information help us make decisions about what and howto say what we have to say?How do I as a teacher and person respond to difference and variation? Howdo my views of the above impact my teaching?What is the context in which my students are likely to use language? Can Iemphasize those while also introducing other scenarios/varieties oflanguage/vocabulary items/cultural orientations?Friedrich, 2011 - 11. 12. Studentsnowadays donot need towait for acurriculum toteach themwhat they wantto learn. 13. NO! They need teachers to teach them the contentand skills they will need in the future! - problem-solving - critical thinking - working collaboratively - thinking creatively 14. Human society has experienced three profound social, economic, and cultural transformations the agrarian revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and now the electronic revolution.Cookson Jr., Peter W. What would Socrates Say?Educational Leadership, 67 (1), pp 8-14. 15. We need to be on the right Technology side of history if we are tosolves all the survive and thrive. If we problems harness them correctly, we can blend the best of our traditional intellectual linear cultureSocrates wisdom of the 5th century BCE with the current digital culture, creating a newTechnology makespeople dumberlearning and intellectual environment consistent with the cognitive and Peter W.expressive demands of the Cookson Jr. 21st century. 16. We must overhaul and redesign the current school system.() Mass education belongs in the era of massive armies,massive industrial complexes, and massive attempts at socialcontrol. ()If we stop thinking of schools as buildings and start thinkingof learning as occurring in many different places, we will freeourselves from the conventional education model that stilldominates our thinking. 17. Technical fixes to our outdated educational system arelikely to be inadequate. We need to adapt to a rapidlychanging world.The 21st century mind will need to successfullymanage the complexity and diversity of our world bybecoming more fluid, more flexible, more focused onreality, and radically more innovative. Four elements ofthe 21st century mind could be the basis of a newapproach to education.- Critical reflection- Empirical reasoning- Collective intelligence- Metacognition 18. Five minds for thefuture:-Disciplined -Synthesizing- Creative- Respectful - Ethical 19. The two brains work together. Learning is the formation of newsynapses and new dendritebranches. Learning is effortful; we have tostrengthen the neural networkfor retention. 83% of sensory communication isseen, not heard Learning another language givesyou a better brain.Janet Zadina, 2011. The brain does not separateemotion from cognition. 20. 21. Anticipates the future Ensures that thepreparation of todayschildren is always focusedon preparing them forthe world(s) in whichthey will live and worknot the current world inwhich the teachers haveto navigate and dwell 22. Fosters peer relationships:- Students may have 500 Facebookfriends, but do they know how tobe a friend?- Technology can foster isolation;therefore interpersonal relationshipskills must be taught in ourclassrooms so that our students cango on to be effective in theworkplace and fulfilled in their lives 23. Can teach and assess all levels of learners: 21st-century educators must be Situational Leaders. Theymust assess where each and every student they teach is atrelative to Learning Ability and Commitment toLearning. They must work to bring all students up to a levelwhere pedagogical learning is replaced by andragogy or anadult learning style, where students have a say in their ownlearning. 24. Is able to assess effective vs. non-effectivetechnology: The effective 21st-century teacher will need to be adept injudging the educative and non-educative use oftechnologies made available to them and to their studentsat school and at home. The potential downside oftechnologies is their potential for non-productive usewasting time and resources. The upside though, issignificant if used properly. 25. What Tech Tools Should Be Required Knowledge for Teachers? By Mary Beth Hertz 8/3/11 26. Its not about the tools. Tools come and go, but beingable to see the forest for the trees is a life-long skill. 27. There are a few essential things that teachers should know: compose and check email and know how to attach files to anemail know that there are more choices than Google for searching theInternet be able to locate resources on the Internet and be able toevaluate sites for accuracy and relevance know how to navigate, find, save and open files and applicationson a computer of any OS. 28. if you want to be part of an extended learning network or community, you have to be findable. And you have to participate in some way. The people I learn from on a day-to-day basis are Googleable. Theyre findable, they have a presence, theyre participating, theyre transparent. Thats what makes them a part of my learning network. If youre not out thereif youre not transparent or findable in that wayI cant learn with you. (Richardson, 2010),0 29. Is a lifelong learner: Flexible, willing to accept and embrace change,willing to make mistakes; Willing to learn from colleagues and students; Able to pose open-ended questions to studentswithout having to know one exact answer; 30. Is a lifelong learner: (my additions) Curious about subject-matter in our case, English; Interested in studentsworld: what they listen to, watch, wear, talk about, use, etc; Connected; Engaged in various types of professional development opportunities; Able to reflect on how he/she teaches. 31. Its not thedoing thatmatters; its thethinking aboutthe doing.