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The teaching of edukasyon sa pagpapakatao

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  • The teaching of Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao

  • The relevance of Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP) as a subject heightened by the urgent need to strengthen the moral fiber of society. For national moral recovery, the Departrment of Education, Culture and Sports introduced the DECS Values Education Program in 1998 emphasizing social reform through the inner transformation of the individual. That was in support of President Corazon Aquinos 1988 Moral Recovery Program. The DECS Values Education Program had as its centerpiece the offering of Values Education as a subject in all Grade levels the same subject is offered in the K to 12 Curriculum with a new name Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao.

  • Preamble of the 1987 Philippine Constitution

    We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

  • The Goals and Scope of the Teaching of Edukasyon sa PagpapakataoIntended Outcomes of Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao as a Course (subject)Effective teaching of EsP begins with a clear understanding of the expected outcomes or the goal of teaching EsP.The K to 12 Curriclum Guide for EsP developed by the department of Education states:Tunguhin (goal) nito (EsP) ang paghubog ng kabataang nagpapasya at kumikilos nang mapanagutan tungo sa kabutihang panlahat lilinangin at pauunlarin ang pagkataong etikal ng bawat mag aaral .

  • ` Upang maipamalas ito, kailangang magtaglay siya ng limang pangunahing kakayahan. (macro skills , pang unawa, pagninilay, pagsangguni,pagpapasya at pagkilos).

    Nilalayon ng EsP na linangin at paunlarin ang pagkataong etikal ng mag aaral. Ang EsP ay naglalayong gabayan ang mga mag aaral na mahanap/matagpuan ang kabuluhan ng kanyang buhay, ang papel niya sa lipunang Pilipino upang makibahagi siya sa pagtatayo ng pamayanang pinaiiral ang katotohanan, kalayaan , katarungan at pagmamahal.

  • The Learning Area Standard Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pang unawa sa konsepto sa pananagutang pansarili , pamilya , kapwa, bansa, daigdig at Diyos ; nakapagpapasiya at nakakakilos ng mapanagutan tungo sa kabutihang panlahat upang mabuhay nang maayos at maligaya.The teaching of EsP has cognitive, behavioral (psychomotor) and affective dimensions. It begins with the students understanding of the concept of responsibility to himself/herself, his/her family, fellowmen, country, world and God (pag unawa sa mga konsepto sa kanyang pananagutan)which lead to decision-making and responsible action (nakakapagpasaya at nakakakilos ng mapanagutan)

  • Effective EsP touches the minds the hearts and the hands of the students not just their minds. Effective EsP makes the student realize that responsibility has a horizontal and vertical dimension. He/she has to reach out to his/her fellowmen. The Program standard of teaching EsP is made more in the specific key stage outcomes.The key stages in K to 12 areEnd of Grade 3End of Grade 6End of Grade 10End of Grade 12

  • K-Baitang 3K-Baitang 7-10K-Baitang 4-6Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa konsepto at gawaing nagpapakita ng pananagutang pansarili, pampamilya, pagmamahal sa kapwa/pamayanan sa bansa at sa Diyos tungo sa maayos at masayang pamumuhayNaipamalas ng mag aaral ang pang unawa sa konsepto at gawaing nagpapakita ng pananagutang pansarili, pampamilya, pagmamahal sa kapwa sa bansa/ daigdig at sa Diyos tungo sa kabutihang panlahatNaipamalas ng mag aaral ang pang unawa sa konsepto at gawaing nagpapakita ng pananagutang pansarili , pagkatao ng tao, lipunan, paggawa at pagpapahalagang moral at nagpapasiya at kumikilos nang mapanagutan tungo sa kabutihang panlahat upang mamuhay nang may kaayusan at kaligayahan.

  • The Grade Level Standards and Themes of EsP

    GradeGrade Level standardsKNaipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa pagkakaroon ng kamalayan sa paggalang at pagmamahal sa sarili, kapwa at sa Diyos bilang gabay sa maayos at masayang tahanan12Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa mga paraan ng paggalang sa sarili, kapwa, bansa at sa Diyos bilang gabay sa maayos at masayang tahanan at paaralan.Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa pagpapakita ng mga kilos na nagpapahalaga sa sarili, kapwa, bansa, Diyos at sa kanyang mga nilikha bilang patnubay sa maayos at masayang paaralan at pamayanan.

  • Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa mga gawain na nagpapakita ng pagpapahalaga tungo sa maayos at masayang pamumuhay na may mapanagutang kilos at pagpapasiya para sa sarili, kapwa, pamayanan, bansa at Diyos.34Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa mga makabuluhang gawain na may kaakibat na pagpapahalaga tungo sa wasto, maayos, masaya at mapayapang pamumuhay para sa sarili kapwa, bansa at Diyos.5Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa masusing pagsususri sa pagpapahayag, pagganap ng tungkulin na may pananagutan at pagsasabuhay ng mga ito tungo sa masaya mapayapa at maunlad na pamumuhay para sa sarili, mag anak, kapwa,pamayanan, bansa daigdig at Diyos. 6Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pang unawa sa mga gawain na tumutulong sa pag angat ng sariling dignidad, pagmamahal sa kapwa na may mapanagutang pagkilos at pagpapasya tungo sa maayos, mapayapa at maunlad na pamumuhay para sa kabutihang panlahat.

  • 7Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa mga angkop at inaasahang pagbabago sa panahon ng pagdadalaga at pagbibinat, sa kakayahan at talento , hilig at pagkatao ng tao tungo sa pagtupad ng tungkulin sa sarili, sa kapwa, sa bansa/ daigdig at sa diyos sa pagtatakda ng mithiin upang mapanagutan ang kahihinatnan ng mga pasya at kilos.8Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa layunin at kahalagahan ng pamilya at pakikipagkapwa upang maging mapanagutan sa pakikipag ugnayan sa iba tungo sa makabuluhang buhay ng lipunan9Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa konsepto tungkol sa lipunan at paggawa bilang paglilingkod tungo sa tamang pagpili ng kurso o hanapbuhay na magiging makabuuluhan at kapaki pakinabang sa kanya at sa lipunan.10Naipamalas ng mag aaral ang pag unawa sa mg konsepto tunngkol sa pagkatao ng tao, makataong kilos, pagpapahalagang moral at mga isyung moral at nagpapasya at kumikilos nang may preperensya sa kabutihan upang maging matatag sa gitna ng mga isyung moral at impluwensya ng kapaligiran.

  • The Enhance Basic Education Act of 2013 (R.A. 10533) states that the K to 12 Curriculum (that includes EsP) is developed based on the principle of spiral progression. The use of spiral progression means basic concepts, big ideas, and important tasks are revisited in every grade level in an ever deepening inquiry and increasingly complexity through engaging problems and applications. The outcome of EsP teaching is a student who grows in his pagkataong etikal pag unawa , pagninilay nilay , pagsang guni, pagpapasya at pagkilos and a kabataang makikibahagi sa pagtatayo ng pamayanang pinairal ang katotohanan, kalayaan, katarungan at pagmamahal.

  • 1. Values are both taught and caught. The EsP teacher must teach the cognitive aspect of virtue intentionally and must live to Guiding Principles in the Teaching of Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP)2. Values cannot be separated from understanding although values and attitudes relate to the affective dimension.3. At young age, a child may not yet be capable of understanding his/her true personhood but can be taught to lead a virtuous life that early for him to develop good character. The book of Proverbs states

  • Train up a child in the way he should go, even when he is old he will not depart from it. (Proverbs 22.6)4. Value education is about developing virtues, good habits, and dispositions which had students to responsible and mature adulthood. Effective value education must promote the development of virtue. Virtues are developed through learning and through practice. As Aristotle taught, a person can improve his or her character by practicing self discipline, while a good can be corrupted by repeated self-indulgence.The virtuous person is the ethical person. Margaret Thatcher said:

  • Watch your thoughts for they become words. Watch your words for they become actions. Watch your actions for they become habits. Watch your habits for they become character. Watch your character for it becomes your destiny. 5. Values Education is concerned with relationships, Personhood is rooted in relationships. We develop our personhood in relationship with others. Ones development is inseparably related to others. No one attains his/her personhood without others.

  • 6. An effective values education takes place in an atmosphere of respect, tolerance and genuine understanding. The EsP teacher shares and offers his/her value system with the students or students also share their value systems in class without imposing them on others.

  • Approaches, Methods and Techniues in Edakasyon sa PagpapakataoApproaches in teaching EsPThe K to 12 Curriculum Guide identities ethical decision making (pagpapasyan etikal as the main teaching approach in the teaching of EsP. The curriculum Guide further explains; Ang paggawa ng pagpapasyang etikal o moral ay ang pagbuo ng pasiya na may preperensya sa kabutihan na kinapapalooban ng (a pag alam ng mga detalye sa sitwasyon at (b) maingat na pagsa alang alang ng mga moral na pagpapahalaga na sitawasyon mahalaga sa isang sitwasyon. Mahalaga rin dito ang pagiging sensitibo sa mga aspetong moral ng mga stwasyon sa pang araw araw na buhay at ang kamalayan sa mga tao pangkat na maapektuhan ng pasiya.

  • Six different approaches in teaching EsP 1) Values inculcation instill desirable and pre-chosen values to students;

    2) Moral development approach- used primarily to stimulate students to advance their powers of moral reasoning through a series of increasingly advanced and conflict stages.

    3) Analysis approach- rests on helping the students develop logical thinking and using scientific inquiry procedures in solving value issues;

    4) Value clarification- helps students clarify and actualize personal values;

  • 5) Action learning- develops students abilities to directly in personal and social situations so that they might try out their personal values and;

    6) emotional-ratio approach attempts to help students understand and adopt a lifestyle based on care and consideration for others as well as self.

  • Values Inculcation Approach

    Teaching methods under values inculcation approach module explanation positive and negative reinforcement and modeling.

    Modeling as a method is applied when instances of modeling behavior are drawn from history, literature or more directly from teachers and students and themselves.

  • Moral development approach

    The most popular method under this approach is the moral dilemma. It is may be presented through activities and skit. The focus in moral dilemmas is on the moral reasoning not the choice to determine students moral development stage based on Kohlbergs theory.

    Self-reflection is a prime requisite of moral development approach. This self-reflection is stimulated by three types of student dialogic; (1)student dialogue with teacher (2)students dialogue with other students (3) student dialogue with self.

  • Analysis approach

    Valuing is guided not dictates of the heart and conscience but by rules and procedure of logic. This approach makes the use of problem analysis and decision making methods. Value clarification approach

    The purpose is to help students and actualize values. Value clarification advocates assert that it is valuing process the students must be taught, not values. Here are the seven outline process of valuing ;

  • Choosing from alternativesChoosing after careful consideration of the consequences of each alternative. Choosing freely;Prizing , being freely glad of ones choicePrizing being willing to affirm publicly ones choiceActing upon ones choice, incorporating choices into behaviorActingbupon ones choice repeatedly, overtim (Rath, et.al. 1966)

  • Action Learning approach

    This develops students abilities to act directly in personal and social situation that express their personal values.Emotional-rational approach

    this attempts to help students understand and adopt a lifestyle based on care and consideration for others as well as themselves. This teaching approach can help students know and experience love in action.

  • This method also include;

    1. expressive and communication techniques such as speaking, writing prose, poetry, plays ad photography. 2. discussion techniques, such as small group and entire class discussion. 3. drama techniques with students writing and acting 4. role playing based on situations of common students experience. 5. simulations involving family, school and community problems and; 6. real life involvement such as helping individuals within the community.