The Roman Republic

The roman republic

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Page 1: The roman republic

The Roman Republic

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The Origins of Rome

• 753 By Romulus and Remus (myth)

• Twins of the god Mars and a Latin princess

• Abandoned and raised by she-wolf

• Three groups battled for control – Latins, Greeks (south), and Etruscans (north, alphabet and arch)

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The Early Republic

• 600 B.C. –Etruscan king of Rome

• City grows to nearly 500 square miles

• Tarquin the Proud driven from power

• Republic formed – power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. (free born males)

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Patricians and Plebians

• Patricians – wealthy landowners who held most of the power.

• Plebians – common farmer, artisans, and merchants who made up majority of population.

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The Twelve Tables

• 451 B.C. a group of officials began writing down Rome’s laws.• Tables hung in the Forum• Idea that all free citizens had right to protection by law.

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Comparing Republican Governments

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Government Under the Republic• 1st Century Roman writers

boasted of balanced government.– Features of monarchy,

aristocracy, and democracy.– Two Consuls (kings) one year

term, veto, and once every 10 years

– Senate – 300 members, foreign and domestic policy

– Tribunes – elected by senate, representatives to protect plebians

– Dictator – elected in times of crisis, sixth month term.

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The Roman Army• All citizens who owned land

were required to serve.• Certain public offices had

requirements of 10 years of service.

• Legions – 5000 heavily armed foot soldiers.

• Cavalry (soldiers on horseback) supported each legion.

• Centuries – groups of 80 men. Led by Centurion

• Organization and skill are keys to success

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Rome Spreads Its Power

• By 265 B.C. They were masters of Italy, having defeated the Etruscans and Greeks.

• Different laws and treatment for conquered groups.– Latins became full citizens– All rights of Roman

citizenship except vote– allies

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Romes Commercial Network• Location was key

– Easy access to lands ringing Mediterranean Sea– Traded wine and olive oil for foods, raw materials, and manufactured goods.

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War with Carthage• In 264 B.C. Rome

and Carthage go to war

• Long struggle known as Punic Wars (264 – 146 B.C.)

• Series of three wars.

• First war 264-241 B.C. for control of Sicily and western Mediterranean

• Ends in Defeat of Carthage

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Second Punic War• 218 B.C.• Mastermind behind

the war – Hannibal• Assembled 50,000

infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 60 elephants with intent to capture Rome

• Surprise route• For more than a

decade he marched his forces up and down the Italian peninsula

• Did not capture Rome• Scipio attacks Carthage

and forces Hannibal to return and defend.

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Hannibal’s Elephants

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Rome Triumphs• Third Punic War• 149-146 B.C.• Rome laid siege to

Carthage• Carthage set on fire

and its’ 50,000 inhabitants sold into slavery.

• Its’ territory becomes a Roman province

• Dominance over eastern half of Mediterranean

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Ruins of Carthage