Amanda Kerr, M.Sc., Nutrition Associate, Research and Development, Grober Nutrition Defining and exploring the pieces that create a successful kid rearing management system, and how each piece can change significance across farms. Learning how to manage and prioritize critical points of a kid’s early weeks to lead to best health and wellbeing.
- 1. RIGHT FROM THE STARTPUTTING TOGETHER THE PUZZLE Rearing Healthy Kids48th Annual Grey Bruce Farmers Week 2014January 9, 2014 Amanda Kerr, M.Sc.
2. RIGHT FROM THE START 3. Kid Digestive Physiology At Birth: Functional monogastric Abiotic rumen and intestine Intestinal cell permeable for colostrum absorption Prolific organ and intestinal growth First Weeks: Suckling reflex Esophageal groove Milk proteins digested by rennet abomasal clot Beginnings of rumen development with solid food Weaning: Maturation of enzymes, rumen and microbe population RIGHT FROM THE START 4. Intestinal Physiology and ColostrumRIGHT FROM THE START 5. 6 Weeks: Milk and Grain6 Weeks: Milk and HayRIGHT FROM THE START 6. Digestive Enzyme ActivityRIGHT FROM THE START 7. Enabling Rumen GrowthWater intake drives grain intake Microbes grow best when: Supply of energy and protein are in synch Small and frequent meals for a small abomasum Reduce ruminal drinking Healthy rumen, lower chance of bloat RIGHT FROM THE START 8. When is the kid physiologically ready for weaning? Able to consume approximately 250g/day of a grain ration Providing free choice water will help Willing to eat roughage Not under physiological stress from illness, social mixing Step down weaning best Over 7-10 days is ideal RIGHT FROM THE START 9. Digestive Physiology QuestionsRumen development takes time, and can be encouraged by grain intake.Water intake drives grain intakeColostrum= Antibodies EnergyRIGHT FROM THE START 10. Practical Nutrition - Colostrum Doe colostrum Farm-specific antibodies Must be the first colostrum for highest quality Disease risk? Low quality or limited colostrum? Poor mothering? Clean, disease-free frozen doe or cows colostrum Thaw in bucket of hot water, do not microwave or heat in oven Colostrum replacer (not a colostrum supplement) Guaranteed disease-free and level of IgGs Broad spectrum antibodies High protein (43%), with 14% as IgG proteins, and fat (23%) RIGHT FROM THE START 11. Practical Nutrition - Colostrum Quantity 100 mL directly after birth MINIMUM 150-200mL per kg of body weight Feed every 3-4 hours - within 60 minutes of birth Bottle, syringe, tube-feed Mindful of aspiration into lungs, or over-filling stomach Be clean and patient RIGHT FROM THE START 12. The FUNDAMENTAL Puzzle Piece! Colostrum Not only provides antibodies! FAT = Survival! A small neonate: Large surface area:volume ratio Small brown fat and body fat reserves http://calfcare.ca/colostrum-management/antibody-absorption/RIGHT FROM THE START 13. Whole Milk or Milk Replacer? Remember the 5 Cs of Neonate Care When Making the Choice Personal choice Management, saleable milk, herd disease status, convenience, belief in natures way. A quality milk replacer can bring: Efficiency for frequent feedings; Consistent high quality nutrition; Supplemental vitamins, minerals, and other ingredients Consistent and easy acidification RIGHT FROM THE START 14. Milk Replacers - Fat Fat in milk replacers give more energy in a smaller meal Smaller meals more often less potential for bloat Fat is broken down in the small intestine Bile acids, lipase Passive transport into the blood stream, then enter the liver for repackaging Too much fat or hard to digest fats = greasy feces (similar to scours) Highly unsaturated fats harder to digest in young Fat = satietyRIGHT FROM THE START 15. Milk Replacers - Protein Protein is broken down by a variety of enzymes Milk proteins are 90-97% digested Unless heat damaged Quality testing for scorched particles Whey proteins versus skim milk proteins Whey = faster enzymatic breakdown and absorption Skim milk = forms a clot in the stomach, slow release of protein, satiety effect Alternative proteins Plant: hydrolyzed soy and wheat gluten, pea or bean flours Better able to digest 4-5 weeks and older RIGHT FROM THE START 16. Milk Replacers - Carbohydrates Simple to highly complex structures Lactose (lactase) = simple milk sugar, easy to digest energy Starch (amylase) = harder for a young animal to digest Fiber (rumen microbes) = mature gut Insulin regulation in body Highly complex MOS, FOS, glucans Pre-biotic sources Food for the good large intestine microbes RIGHT FROM THE START 17. Acidified Milk Replacers pH 5.50-5.75 Native Milk pH 6.40-6.60 Organic acid is used to lower pH of the milk replacer Health benefits by lowering pH of stomach Slows microbial growth Milk Replacers 2 Acids One acid to lower the pH of the milk, one acid is active in the stomach An acidified milk replacer is only as good as the managerRIGHT FROM THE START 18. On-Farm Acidified Milk pH 4.0-4.5 Dilute formic acid to preserve whole milk or milk replacer Pasteurization over a couple of hours Not an immediate kill Must agitate liquid at least 3x daily pH must be lower than 4.5 Above this = bacterial growth, cottage cheese RIGHT FROM THE START 19. GYADC 2011 Buck Kid TrialAcidified Milk Replacer Improves Treatment Response Acidified Mortality Non-Acidified Healthy kidsVS.RIGHT FROM THE START 20. Generalized Feeding Schedule for an Average Kid Kid AgeAmount to feed/feeding# feedings/dayMilk (replacer) per kid per dayDay 1250 mL4Colostrum (or replacer)Day 2250 mL41 L total solution 150 g powderEnd Week 1300 mL (approx)31 L total solution 150 g powderEnd Week 250031.5 L 225 g powderWeek 3-680021.6 L 240 g powderAdjust amounts and frequency during cold weather. Always provide free choice water. RIGHT FROM THE START 21. Nutrition Questions?RIGHT FROM THE START 22. Environment and Kid Health The border pieces of the kid puzzle first 48 hours: Clean, warm, kidding area IgGs arent the only things absorbed by the gut! Prompt removal from doe if to be bottle-fed Easier transition for the kid Clean, quick, quality colostrum Extend colostrum or supplement feeding Winter or disease outbreak survival Warm, draft-free neonate pen Heat lamps Number of kids, temperature RIGHT FROM THE START 23. RIGHT FROM THE START 24. RIGHT FROM THE START 25. The Science of Scours Understanding the Enemy 2 types of scours: Disease bacterial (e.g. E.coli, clostridia), protozoan (e.g. cryptosporidium), etc. Toxin production from bacteria = cellular water loss Attack of the gut epithelial lining Mal-digestion, scar tissue Nutritional too large of a meal, improper mixing of milk powder, poor quality/hard to digest milk replacer But wait! It is possible to manage both. RIGHT FROM THE START 26. The Science of Scours Understanding the Enemy Critical Control Points of Scours: Colostrum Adequate energy, hydration Small, frequent meals Clean, dry bedding Warm pen Adequate space per kid Isolate sick kids to hospital pen Wash your hands, bottles, nipples, buckets, use separate forks, shovels, boots between sick and healthy groupsDehydratio n= lethargy, poor appetite, death 27. Health and Environment QuestionsEarly Intervention is Key!Warm, Dry Bedding, SpaceDaily Health MonitoringAttitude, Suckle Reflex, Temperature, Fecal Score RIGHT FROM THE START 28. Trouble Shooting Milk Replacers Water Temperature Too high (60C +) Denature proteins, decrease solubility and digestibility Vitamins are disintegrated Poorer emulsification of fats = nutritional scours Too low Poor solubility Improper liquefaction of fats = nutritional scours Water hardness Hard water = flocculations (acidified milk replacers prone) RIGHT FROM THE START 29. Trouble Shooting Milk Replacers Mix for the indicated period of time Shear force creates behaviour issues Very high mixing speed Very thin blade on mixer Clean utensils, buckets Consider annual water testing - bacteria Store opened milk replacer bags in a sealable container Not in the milk house Hot, humid environments = clumping, poor mixability RIGHT FROM THE START 30. Trouble Shooting Milk Replacers My kids arent drinking! Properly trained on feeder? Left with doe too long? Milk left out too long? Too much formic acid added? Old milk replacer used? Improper mixing? Improper storage? Illness? Competition? RIGHT FROM THE START 31. Automating Kid Care Efficient way to provide small, frequent meals Continuous nutrition = overcome illness, cold weather Guaranteed consistency with a milk replacer Disease-free Consistent energy, protein, fat, mineral and vitamins Supplemental ingredients for health and growth Divert less saleable milk RIGHT FROM THE START 32. Mob Feeders Mob feeders Offer milk 3x a day for first 2-3 weeks Leave milk out no longer than 2 hours Bacterial growth Separation of milk After 3 weeks of age, milk can be offered 2x daily Areas to Watch: Competition Spoilage Waste 33. RIGHT FROM THE START 34. RIGHT FROM THE START 35. Automatic Feeder Mechanics 101 6 nipples = 120 kids capacity Programmable to drink in 40-50 minute cycles Program number of visits, minimum and maximum meal sizes If kid does not drink minimum, refuse amount added to next meal, visit interval reduced Program step-down weaning Software program to track intakes, drinking speed Can pair with a scale to record weight gains Automatic calibration and clean cycles RIGHT FROM THE START 36. RIGHT FROM THE START 37. Getting Kids on Automatic Feeders May take up to 1 week to fully train all kids on machine Feed via bottle to ensure adequate colostrum and energy delivery first! Up to 4 days, avoiding human dependence 6 Training Tips: Suckling reflex established Guide kids to feeder small groups work best Patience Tough love does not work, unlike calves Kids are individuals, flock mentality does not apply Regularly check intakes and health RIGHT FROM THE START 38. RIGHT FROM THE START