2. Aa Alliteration The repetition of the initial consonant sound. It uses words with the same consonant or letter sound and is used to emphasize phonemes.
3. Bb Bottom-Up Approach A literacy development approach that is skills based. It begins by teaching graphemes and phonemes then progresses to syllables, words, sentences, paragraphs, and whole books. This approach uses phonics instruction to teach reading.
4. Cc Criterion-Referenced Test This type of test is designed to asses the students understanding of the concepts being taught. Teacher designed tests are criterion-referenced because they are developed to measure the students understanding of the outcomes for the course. If the scores on a criterion-referenced test are high the teacher knows that the students have mastered the material taught.
5. Dd Denotation Denotation is the literal meaning of the words. The opposite of connotations which is the implied meaning of the word or sentence. Example: The denotation of the word Home is "A place where we live" but the connotation is more complex and suggests things such as security, comfort, and family.
6. Ee Emergent Readers A reader at this level understands that print has meaning, and that text runs left to right, and top to bottom. They are able to match print to words when the teacher points to each word as they read the text. Students at this stage can represent their understanding of the text through illustrations and retelling of major events.
7. Ff Fluency Disorders A condition that prevents a person from being able to communicate coherently or fluently. The two most common conditions are: stuttering and cluttering. Stuttering- the inability to produce a sound or multiple false starts in the communication process. Cluttering-When a person talks to fast making comprehension difficult.
8. Gg Graphemes Are the letters in a word. Grapheme recognition can be taught using songs, videos, games, and hands on activities.
9. Hh Homophones Words that sound the same as other words but have a different meaning and spelling.
10. Ii Imitation A learning strategy used by young children in the One-Word Stage, 11-19 months. During this stage children imitate the sounds, actions, and phrases they see and hear.
11. Jj Journals Writing in journals gives students the opportunity to communicate using written language. The teacher should not correct the writing sample but should write notes about the entry. Personal journals-record personal experiences and information. Dialogue journals-encourage communication between people. Reflective journals-the entries reflect on a specific problem or situation. Learning logs-used to document the students understanding of content taught.
12. Kk K-W-L Chart These charts are used to asses students background knowledge on a given topic. They record what the student knows prior to the lesson. What they want to know, also recorded prior to lesson, and what they learn after the lesson has been taught.
13. Ll Language Play A way for children to learn and acquire language knowledge. Language play involves the use of rhymes, tongue twisters (alliteration), songs, and poems. It is designed to promote learning in a fun environment.
14. Mm Morphemes The smallest meaningful unit in a word. Example: The word dogs has two morphemes. Dog -root word S plural morpheme
15. Nn Norm-Referenced Tests This type of test is designed to compare a group of students. On a norm-referenced tests most students will be in the average range, very few will be above average, and many students will be below average. The results to the test will look like a bell-curve.
16. Oo Open-Class Words Words that refer to only one concept. Children generally start using them during the Two-Word Stage, age 11-24 months. Milk
17. Pp Phonemes The sounds in a word. Phoneme recognition can be taught using games, songs, learning games, and hands on activities.
18. Qq Questioning Can be used to asses comprehension. It can be written or verbal and comes in two forms. Divergent- more than one answer can be correct. Convergent-only has one correct answer.
19. Rr Reciprocal Teaching An activity that is designed to help struggling readers improve their comprehension skills. In this activity the teacher engages the student in a conversation that focuses on four main components. Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting
20. Ss Syntax Is the way that words are arranged in a sentence. It follows the basic sentence structure used in the English language.
21. Tt Top-Down Approach A literacy development strategy that uses the meaning based approach. The top-down approach begins with the whole text, focusing on meaning. It then works backwards through paragraphs, sentences, words, syllables, graphemes and phonemes to teach literacy.
22. Uu Using Parts of a Book It is important for students to learn how to use all the different parts of a book to help with comprehension. They should be encouraged to use the index, glossary, charts, table of context, and diagrams to aid in comprehension.
23. Vv Visualizing Students need to learn how to see what they are reading in visual images. This strategy helps to improve understanding about the text they are reading.
24. Ww Whole Language Approach Dr. Kenneth Goodmans work lead to the creation of the Whole Language Approach. This method involves teaching readers to recognize whole words as pieces of language. It also focuses on meaning and strategy instruction.
25. Xx Lexicon Is the vocabulary of a language. It is also the alphabetical arrangement of words in a language and their definitions.
26. Yy Syllabication Is the ability to separate words into syllables. This is a necessary skill in phonological awareness. To help students learn to recognize syllables the teacher can use voice intonation at the beginning and end of syllables.
27. Zz Graphic Organizers Students can use graphic organizers to organize information in a visual manner. There are many different types of graphic organizers below are a few of the most common ones: KWL chart Venn Diagram T Chart Semantic Web Trifold