This presentation contains a brief overview of the definition and theories underlying poverty in the U.S. as well as methods for teaching students who live in poverty.
Text of Teaching students who live in poverty
1. A brief overview
2. What is your definition of poverty in the U.S.? Basic Necessity Perspective: Lack of food, clothing, shelter, and medical care Cultural Perspective: Lack of access to quality education, enriching experiences, a healthy lifestyle (nutritious food, exercise, preventive medical care), a safe environment, fundamental life skills, effective socialization for achievement
3. Poverty Threshold Created in 1963 by Mollie Orshansky of the Dept. of Agriculture and was based on the cost of a modest diet (Bradshaw, 2007, p.9) Does not vary geographically Is adjusted for cost of living Family of 4 with two kids under the age of 18= $21,756 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010)
4. With no cushion of money, no training in the ways of the wider world, and too little defense against the threats and temptations of decaying communities, a poor man or woman gets sacked again and again-buffeted and bruised and defeated. When the exception breaks this cycle of failure, it is called the fulfillment of the American Dream. -David K. Shipler The Working Poor: Invisible in America
5. Irresponsible and unstable individuals make poor life choices Certain groups (women, minorities, disabled) are incapable of succeeding In large numbers Puritan work ethic and Americas value of individualism (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 13)
6. A culture of poverty entraps generation after generation because the values and beliefs embraced by that culture are antithetical to achievement and success. This type of culture can be viewed as opportunistic and non-productive (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 15) Two approaches to reverse the effects of this subculture: change the culture or utilize the strengths of the culture
7. Theorists in this tradition look not to the individual as a source of poverty but to the economic, political, and social system that causes people to have limited opportunities and resources with which to achieve income and well-being (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 16). Failure of minimum wage to keep up with cost-of-living Inadequately performing schools are ill-prepared to prepare students to reach or achieve in a higher education setting Influence of money in the political sphere and the reticence of the poor to become politically involved Discrimination against certain groups makes opportunities in the wider society less accessible.
8. people, institutions, and cultures in certain geographic areas lackthe objective resources needed to generate well-being and income (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 18). Was largely rural and urban before the most recent economic downturn which has affected the suburbs (The Economist, 2010) Appropriation of the economic agglomeration theory (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 18) Disinvestment (communities where businesses have left; ghost towns) Proximity to natural resources Lackof innovation (absence of successful thinkers and inventors) (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 18)
9. builds on components of each of the other theories in that it looks at the individual and their community as caught in a spiral of opportunity and problems, and that once problems dominate they close other opportunities and create a cumulative set of problems that make any effective response nearly impossible (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 19). Community Level A major employer shuts down or leaves a community Business is slow at retail shops which also close or leave Tax-revenue declines Schools are not properly funded Students are not being adequately educated Industries cant dont operate in that community because there is a lack of qualified workers Individual Level Lack of spending and saving Lack of investment in education or training Health issues due to poor diet, stress, and lack of access to preventive health care Erosion of self-confidence and motivation
10. Recognizes the interdependence of factors Looks for an approach that works to mitigate poverty on multiple fronts Seeks to foster the growth of self-sufficiency Identifies the strengths of an impoverished community or population and works to build on those qualities. Bradshaw calls this asse t-m apping (2007, p. 21). Uses rooted community resources Community Development Programs 1. Comprehensive- include a variety of services that try to bridge individual and community needs (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 22). 2. Collaboration- involves networks among participants, though the coordination can vary from formal to informal (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 22). 3. Community Organizing- a tool by which local people can participate to understand how their personal lives and the community well-being are intertwined (Bradshaw, 2007, p. 22).
11. FII families set and act on their own goals. Instead of providing services or direction, we create space for families to seek out the support or knowledge they want. FIIs staff is not allowed to lead or direct the families, thus the families feel ownership over the progress they make and the actions they take. Families must work together. This country has a long history of people working together to move their whole community up from poverty. FII focuses progress. Most other supports for low-income people focus on needs and deficits. FII identifies families strengths and then encourages, validates, and rewards their progress and accomplishments. Family Independence Initiative
12. Low birth weight Physical developmental delays (stunted growth) Lead poisoning Learning disabilities Increased emotional and behavioral problems Decreased sense of self worth Poor peer relationships Lack of shared, common experiences (Cuthrell, Stapelton, Ledford, 2010, p. 105)
13. Teachers view themselves as being in charge of the classroom and of their students learning (Rogalsky, 2009). Students have little autonomy and are not trusted to think for themselves (Rogalsky, 2009). Students lack motivation and look to others to motivate them to learn (Rogalsky, 2009). Classrooms are student- centered and can also be student-led Students decide what topics they would like to delve into and map out their own plan for learning Teachers have high expectations for students and develop or encourage their innate curiosity
14. High Expectations Culture of Academic Achievement Constant Assessment Collaboration Creative Scheduling Allocating money resourcefully and effectively Positive Classroom Environment Learn the hidden rules of the students culture and teach the hidden rules of the schools culture (Cuthrell, Stapleton, and Ledford, 2010, p.106).
15. asset-mapping positive feedback building relationships with students, parents, and the community maintaining high expectations learn names quickly establish positive relationships among students (team building exercises) (Cuthrell, Stapleton, and Ledford, 2010, p.106).
16. (a) parents as the primary resource in education of their children (b) parents and community members as supporters and advocates for the education of their children, (c) parents and community members as participants in the education of all children (Cuthrell, Stapleton, and Ledford, 2010, p.107).
17. Classrooms should be high in challenge and low in terms of threat. Activities and lessons that are neither appropriate nor meaningful can be highly threatening to a child (Cuthrell, Stapleton, and Ledford, 2010, p.107). Traditionally concentrates on language learning and is differentiated instruction designed for ELL learners Emphasis on experiential learning and language skills is helpful for all students (Center for Applied Linguistics, 2010; Gibson, 2010). For more information visit: http://www.c