StructuralismLets BeginKarachi University Department Teacher EducationBatch 2013th
PARTICIPANTSNabeel AhmadMaleeka MehmoodAnum HanifWajeeha ManzoorNamra Mushtaq
Coming Up Next!Brief history. What Structuralism Actually
(method which forms the basis of Structuralism.)
What is introspection, its merits and limitations. Exemplification
Wilhelm WundtWrote FIRST systematic book of psychology (Physiological psychology) After receiving M.D degree, he began career as a Physiologist.Later became interested in COMPLEX MENTAL PROCESSES.He was convinced that experimental methods of PHYSIOLOGY could be
applied to RESEARCH on CONSCIOUSNESS
Wilhelm Wundt is regarded as Father Of Experimental Psychology
Wundt broke Consciousness into two categories (Objective sensation and Subjective feelings)
So What Structuralism Really IsRefers to a theory of Consciousness developed by William Wundt and Edward Bradford Titcehner.
It seeks to analyze the ADULT MIND (birth-present) in terms of simplest definable components.
These components fit together to from complex experiences which are also related to Physical events
Parts Leading To A Whole In Mind
GOAL OF STRUCTURALISM
Understanding Consciousness!having Self awareness and ability to introspect
Angry Girl V/S Angry CatIf you are angry, you can try to understand your anger, why you are angry, what that anger feels like, etc. But can a cat?
ELEMENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESSConsciousness the sum of our experiences that exist at any given time.
Introspectionhave You Seen An Inspector?
Oldest research method of psychology
Introspection? Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
In psychology, the process of introspection relies solely on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul.
Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is contrasted with external observation.
The philosopher Plato asked, "why should we not calmly and patiently review our own thoughts, and thoroughly examine and see what these appearances in us really are?"
Introspective Observation is what we have to rely on first and foremost and alwaysWILLIAM JAMES
Cheapest and most economical methodNo need of apparatus or laboratoryCan be used anytime anywhere.Easiest and readily available to individualOnly method which helps a person to know and discover own feelings and emotionsThis method gradually led to the development of more objective methods.
Data collected by introspection can not be verified/ proved .
It is possible that the reporter may knowingly lie or hide facts to mislead.
It can only be done by adults and not children.
It needs Highly TRAINED AND SKILLED workers
In introspection mind studies its own working but actually mind can not accurately study itself.
EXAMPLE When one is in fear/ anger he can not study his mind. After a while when anger disappears he can study his mind.
(To expect an individual to study the working of mind during an emotional state is a mistaken belief)
Human beings are NOT Static Objects. Their mental process is under constant change.So when attempts to introspect, the STATE of mental process disappears.Hence introspection is generally carried out when a particular state of mind we wish to study has passed.So it really is RETROSPECTION that we do.
How Do Structuralism and Introspection Relate to Education
"cold", "crisp", and "sweet"