The process of analyzing personality in terms of ego states is called structural analysis. Eric Berne defined an ego state as a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behaviour.
2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kerala, India. Phone 9744551114 Mail firstname.lastname@example.org Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations. 3. Contents Ego states Definition. First Order Structural Model. Functional Model. Ego Gram. Second Order Structural Model. Structural Pathology 4. The process of analysing personality in terms of ego states is called structural analysis. Definition 5. Think back over the past 24 hours of your life. Were there moments during that time when you acted, thought and felt just as you did when you were a child? Were there other times when you found yourself behaving, thinking and feeling in ways you copied long ago from you parents or from other people who were parent figures for you? And were there still other occasions when your behavior, thoughts and feelings wee simply a direct here and now response to what was happening around you at that moment? Take time to write down one example of each of these three situations. Activity 6. Eric Berne defined an ego state as a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behaviour. Ego states 7. Berne was exact in his choice of words. It is worth while taking some time now to clear what he was conveying in this definition. Berne is saying that each ego state is defined by a combination of feeling and experience which consistently occur together. Berne is suggesting that the behaviour typical of each ego state is consistently shown together. Berne is saying that when I am in touch with the feeling and experience defining a particular ego state, I will also be showing the behaviours which define that same ego state. The whole point of the ego state model is that it allows us to make reliable connections of this kind between behaviour, experience and feelings. Definition in detail 8. Ego states are each defined in terms of observable behavioural clues. By contrast, super ego, ego and Id are purely theoretical concepts. The ego states related to persons with special identities while Freud's three psychic agencies are generalized. Freuds model and the ego state model are not one and the same thing. Neither do they contradict each other. They are simply different ways of portraying personality. Difference between Ego states and super ego, ego and ID 9. Ego state is not a thing. It is a name, which we use to describe a set of related feelings, thoughts and behaviour. In the same way, parent, adult and child are not things, They are names. People talk about ego states as if they were things we have. Ego states are names, not things 10. Oversimplified model states that when I am thinking, I am in adult. When I am feeling, I am in child. When I am making value judgements, I am in parent. The oversimplified model completely omits to mention that I can think and feel and make value judgements from any of my ego states. An even more serious fault of the over simplified model is that it says nothing about the time dimension of ego states. Berne emphasised that parent and child are echoes of past. Only when I am in my adult am I responding to situations with all my present resources as a grown up. The over simplified model 11. Structure What Content Function How Process 12. Think back through the past 24 hours. Make a note of an instance when you were in controlling parent. Make a note of an instance when you were in nurturing parent. Make a note of an instance when you were in adult. Make a note of an instance when you were in adapted child. Make a note of an instance when you were in free child. Activity 13. ego gram is an intuitive way of showing the functional ego state parts in our personality. 14. Draw you ego gram. Is there anything you want to change about your ego gram. If there is , decide which bar you need to raise to achieve this change. List at least five new behaviour which you can practice to increase this ego state. Draw you ideal ego gram. Activity 15. Parent in parent (P3) Parent in parent is a store house of messages which may be passed down through generations. Adult in the parent (A3) Adult in parent is the collection of statements about reality which a person has heard from the figures in her parent and has copied from them. Many of these statements will be true in objective fact. Child in the parent (C3) When I introject the child ego state of my parents into my own parent, I include my perception of their child as a part of the introject. Second order structure - Parent 16. Parent in child (P1) It is in a magical form that younger children store away their own version of messages from their parents. P1 is given many scary nicknames by TA writers like witch parent, the Ogre and the pig parent. The parent in the child is also associated with the fairly god mother, the good fairy and Santa Claus. For this reason, we prefer the term Magical parent for P1. Berne called P1 the electrode. Adult in child /Little professor (A1) As a young child, I was certainly interested in checking out the world around me. But instead of being logical, I relied more on intuition, instant impression. Child in the child (C1) Very young children experience the world mainly in terms of body sensations. Those will form the bulk of memories stored in the child in the child. It is like the Russian doll which has many dolls inside. Second order structure- Child 17. The functional model classifies observed behaviours, while the structural model classifies stored memories and strategies. In analysing ego states, structural refers to the component parts of the personality while functional refers to the way in which the personality is functioning at a given point of time. Interpersonal aspects of TA work require the functional model and intrapsychic matters need to be studied in terms of the structural model. When you look at me and listen to me, you can observe function. But you can only infer structure. Distinguishing structure from function 18. Behavioural diagnosis - In behavioural diagnosis, you judge which ego state a person is in by observing his behaviour. As you do so, you can see or hear : words, tones, gestures, postures, facial expressions. Social diagnosis - The idea behind social diagnosis is that other people will often relate to me from an ego state that complements the one I am using. Historical diagnosis - In historical diagnosis, we ask questions about how the person was as a child, we ask about the persons parents and parent figures. Phenomenological diagnosis - Phenomenological validation only occurs, If the individual can re-experience the whole ego state in full intensity with little weathering Recognizing ego states 19. When an ego state is dictating a persons behaviour, that ego state is said to have executive power. When a person experiences himself to be in a particular ego state, we say he is experiencing that ego state as his real self. A persons most obvious behavioural signals will indicate the ego states that have executive power. But at the same time, he will exhibit other and more subtle signals which do not match those of the executive ego state. In technical language, we say then that his behaviour shows incongruity. Recognizing incongruity is one of the most important skills you can develop as a user of TA. Other concepts 20. Eric Berne developed a theoretical explanation of what happens when we shift executive power and our sense of real self between one ego state and another. He suggested that energy exists in three forms : Bound, unbound and free. Cathexis is psychic energy. When the monkey is sitting on a high branch, it posses potential energy which is analogous to bound cathexis. If the monkey then does fall off the branch, the potential energy is released as kinetic energy which Illustrates the unbound cathexis. Rather than falling off the branch, the monkey can exercise the choice to jump to the ground. Berne suggests that this voluntary uses of energy is analogous to free cathexis. Bernes energy theory 21. Structural pathology 22. I am in parent contamination when I mistake parental slogans for adult reality. These are taught beliefs that are taken as facts. Berne call this prejudice. When a person is speaking about herself and say you instead of I, it is likely that the content of what follows will be parent contaminated. The world is a bad place. People cant be trusted. If at first you dont succeed, try, try, try again. Parent Contamination 23. Take two minutes to write down all the slogans and beliefs you remember hearing from your parents and parental figures. Look through you list of parental slogans and beliefs. Check whether each one is a statement of reality or a parent contamination. If you decide there are any you want to update to fit with grown up reality, strike them out and substitute your new version. Activity 24. When I am child contaminated, I cloud my grown up thinking with beliefs from my childhood. These are fantasies, evoked by feelings, that are taken as facts. Berne used the word delusion to describe the kind of belief that typically arise from child contamination. When the content of a child contamination comes from earlier childhood, the delusion is likely to be more bizarre. People just dont like me. There is something wrong with me. I cant stop smoking. I was born fat. Child Contamination 25. Take a piece of paper and head it : I am the sort of person who. Take two minutes to write down all the ways you think of to finish the sentence. At the end of two minutes, relax, breathe and look around the room for a while. For each of the ways you finished the sentence, check whether it is a statement about reality or a child contamination. If you decid