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Spelling, punctuation and grammar

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  • 1. SPAG PLC - How to make a difference in 40 minutes?! Spelling- Homophones Punctuation- Apostrophes Grammar- Sentence construction

2. Whole School Literacy "Every teacher is a teacher of English because every teacher is a teacher in English. We cannot give a lesson in any subject without helping or neglecting the English of our pupils." George Sampson, (Primary teacher and school inspector) 1921. 3. We are not experts! We get it wrong too! The 1990s education system did not have a focus on grammar we are generally self-taught as a consequence of PGCE study. The study of English Literature is not focussed necessarily on language, 4. TASK: Have a go at the questions in your SPAG test 5. Grammar where did it come from? Grammar is a construct the rules of grammar were not created by a god or divine power. Grammar was developed to teach Latin a lingua franca of Western Europe because of the Roman Empire. Grammar came from the Greek word for writing Most of the population in the Middle Ages of England were illiterate and English was very much a spoken language The printing press made it possible for more people to read and therefore the rules of grammar enabled a standard version of English to be developed. 6. What is this? 7. Homophone - Same pronunciation - Sometimes Same Spelling - Different Meaning 8. A cross bear cant bear to cross rivers A cross bear cant bear to cross rivers A cross bear cant bear to cross rivers A cross bear cant bear to cross rivers A cross bear cant bear to cross rivers 9. Common Homophones for students to learn There / their / theyre Were / Were / Where To / Too / Two Sea / See For / Four / Fore Piece / Peace Hear / Here Your / Youre Practice vs Practise Affect vs Effect 10. Common Homophones for students to learn There / their / theyre Were / Were / Where To / Too / Two Sea / See For / Four / Fore Piece / Peace Hear / Here Your / Youre Practice vs Practise Affect vs Effect Practice = Noun Football practice Practise = Verb I practised football Affect = Verb To influence or make a difference Effect = Noun and Verb Noun = a result or influence Verb = to bring something about as a result 11. Sentences Task: Look at the sentences below and highlight the main clauses in one colour and subordinate clauses in another. Separate the clauses using a comma. 1. The twins asked Dad to turn up the heating because it was cold. 2. Louisa snored loudly while she was sleeping. 3. Before he could go swimming Ali packed his towel. 4. After drinking his water Mark washed his glass. 5. Peter disliked his new trousers but his mum thought they were very smart. Main Clauses Subordinate Clauses TASK Highlight the main clause, add a comma, highlight the subordinate clause 12. Puncture, punctuate, break 13. 19 TASK 2: Now see if you can match up the name and one of the jobs of each of these punctuation marks. hyphen comma semi- colon exclamation mark colon brackets This can be used to show a loud voice or strength of feeling. This can introduce an idea, a list or a quotation. This can be used to separate a main clause and a subordinate clause. These may be used to add stage directions or asides in a script. This can be used to join two words together. You can use this to link two sentences about the same topic. 14. Copy the following into your books: Title: Using the Comma What is a comma? A comma is used within a sentence to separate one group of words from another so that the meaning of the sentence is clear. We use commas: In lists To separate additional information from the main sentences Before a connecting word eg but In long sentences 15. SPOT THE DIFFERENCE Becky, our secretary, has left us Becky, our secretary has left us 16. Red Colour Captain: COMMAS Green Colour Captain: CAPITAL LETTERS Blue Colour Captain: FULL STOPS . Black Colour Captain: PARAGRAPHS 17. Apostrophes (not apostrophes!) 18. Pupils People find apostrophes difficult! We know this because we see them used incorrectly ALL the time! 19. People miss them out when they should use them 20. But they also put them in where they shouldnt 21. And, sometimes, they do both! 22. The possessive apostrophe 23. The guitar of Josh Rule Find the owner Add the apostrophe Add the s if there isnt one Josh Joshs guitar Josh 24. The car of my parents Rule Find the owner Add the apostrophe Add the s if there isnt one my parents my parents car my parents 25. The cars of the men Rule Find the owner Add the apostrophe Add the s if there isnt one the men the mens cars the men 26. The omission apostrophe 27. The apostrophe replaces the letter/s you have taken out: do not = do not do n ot 28. arent = are not cant = cannot couldnt = could not couldve = could have didnt = did not dont = do not doesnt = does not hes = he is he has hell = he will Im = I am Ive = I have Ill = I will Id = I would I should isnt = is not its = it is it has mightnt = might not mustnt = must not shes = she is she has shell = she will shouldnt = should not shouldve = should have theyll = they will theyd = they had theyve = they have til = until tis = it is wouldnt = would not wouldve = would have youve = you have youll = you will youd = you had 29. Remember, if you are making something plural, you never use an apostrophe. The two cats sat on the mat. The two cats sat on the mat. 30. It's the first day of spring. Our bird has escaped from its cage. Its or its? Do not use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns Because possessive pronouns already show ownership, it's not necessary to add an apostrophe: yours his hers its ours theirs

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