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Southern New Hampshire University MSTELF Program

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  • 1. Southern New Hampshire University MSTELF Program EFL 537 CALL InstructorLyra Riabov Presented by:ChadDetjen &Vicki Hsu February 12, 2004

2. Part 1(Chad): Autonomy Learning and Distance Education CALL Environments&Internet for English Teaching Part 2 (Vicki):The Impact of CALL Instruction On Classroom Computer Useby Joy Egbert, Trena M. Paulus and Yoko Nakamichi 3.

  • Autonomy Learning and Distance Education
    • Chapters 24-28 inCall Environments
    • Chapters 6-8 inInternet for English Teaching


  • What does autonomous learning mean, and how can a teacher create a setting for autonomous learning?
    • the degree of independence the learner is given in setting language learning goals, the path to the goal, the pace of learning and the measurement of success.
  • Factors to think about
      • age
      • maturity
      • language proficiency


  • Source of Structure
  • TeacherLearner

6. Controls that enhance autonomy and learning

  • Learner issues
    • degree of self motivation
    • preference for an independent style
    • knowledge of how one learns best
    • knowledge of what one needs to learn
  • Content issues
    • the path to the goal is relatively unambiguous
    • what is to be learned can be explained clearly
    • appropriate resources exist for self-directed language learning


  • Five conditions for motivation that must be set by the teacher in classroom learning:
    • an appropriate level of challenge or difficulty
    • learning objectives that are meaningful to the learner
    • variation in the teaching methods used
    • intrinsic and extrinsic feedback about success
    • no barriers to learning

8. Autonomy Through Authoring Software

  • Authoring software- programs that can be customized by adding data to fit specific learners needs in terms of degree of difficulty, interest, culture, etc.
  • Eclipse
    • story reconstruction program for MSF-DOS
  • MacReader
    • developed for Macintosh computers
    • designed to increase reading speed and improve comprehension


  • Dasher
    • runs on Macintosh and Microsoft
    • Facilitator can create the following activities:
      • story writing exercises
      • substitution drills
      • sentence-combining exercises
      • M/C questions
      • scrambled sentences
      • vocabulary exercises
      • much more


  • Maclang
    • for Macintosh computers
    • provides a variety of exercise types:
      • vocabulary, fill-in-the-blank, cloze, MC.
    • exercises may be linked to audio or video

11. Multimedia Authoring Software

  • Can create programs that are highly interactive, fully media capable, easy to use and enjoyable
  • Software allows user to create, import, and display text, graphics, animations, video and sound
  • Multimedia allows users to develop presentation and practice software for virtually all language levels

12. Multimedia cont.

  • Authors can write simple programs to make the software do almost anything they want.
  • With the click of a button users can jump from one program or application to another. This is known as branching ability.
  • Software is user friendly
    • comes with tutorials that teach the user how to use the software in the matter of hours

13. Multimedia Cont.

  • Allows for the creation of language learning applications that fall into the autonomy types:
  • Teacher structured/fixed content
    • Most of the early tutorial and drill exercises
  • Learner structured/fixed content
    • Learners choose their own pathway and time for completion
  • Teacher structured/variable content
    • Software like MacReade
  • Learner structured/variable content
    • Allowing users to become authors themselves

14. Language Learning Over Distance

  • Distance learning has been around for years. Learners receive written materials by mail and then return the completed material for grading.
  • Radio, video, and audio tapes have been widely used for distance education before the advent of the Internet.
  • The Internet has globalized learning and has made time and place independent.

15. Distance Education

  • The following are some of the variables affecting on-line English courses:
    • Content
      • Some courses focus on particular skills while others focus on general
    • Pacing
      • Some courses follow a strict pace while others are more student controlled
    • Teachers role
    • Instructional materials
      • Virtual texts vs. traditional texts
    • Technology
    • Credit
    • Cost

16. Distance Learning Cont.

  • The Internet has been used in language learning for:
    • finding references and doing research
    • locating listening resources
    • finding grammar rules
    • finding interactive exercises
    • analyzing texts
    • publishing writing
    • communicating internationally
    • communicating in real time
    • on-line courses

17. A Look at the Future

  • Students in the future will be able to take classes anytime, anywhere with teachers from around the world.
  • Ruth Vilmi writes, I believe that the methods for teaching languages, now for English but in the future for all languages, are about to change dramatically. The artificial teacher-student-classroom peer environment will be gradually replaced by authentic, dynamic student-teacher-global peer situations.
  • Teachers need to change their lesson plans to meet the technologically advancing world to better prepare their students to meet the challenges they will face in the future.

18. Planning Tips

  • Time
    • On-line projects are time consuming
    • Start with something simple and build on it
  • Computer and Internet Access
    • Make sure students have access to school computers outside of class
  • Communications:
    • Set an email distribution list so students can contact each other for help and contact the teacher
  • Assessment
    • Explain to the students in the beginning how they are going to be assessed.


  • How do the roles of teacher and student in the electronic or virtual classroom differ from those roles in the conventional classroom?
    • What problems exist for students?
    • For teachers?
  • What are the differences between discourse over distance and discourse in a classroom?

20. The Impact of CALL Instruction on Classroom Computer Use: A Foundation for Rethinking Technology in Teacher Education Joy EgbertWashington State University Trena M. PaulusIndiana University Yoko NakamichiIndiana University PART 2 21. Introduction

  • What do the majority of studies on teacher technology explore?
  • what teachers are and/or should be learning intechnology courses
  • teacher-education students knowledge of and attitudes toward technology
  • how teachers think about and use computers in the classroom

22. Transfer of CALL coursework to the classroom

  • How do teachers learn about CALL-based activities?
  • How does what they learned in their coursework impact their current teaching contexts?
  • What factors influence whether they use computers in their classrooms?
  • How do participants continue to acquire and master new ideas in CALL after formal coursework ends?

23. Purposes

  • Examine how language teachers learn about CALL activities
  • How they apply knowledge and experience gained in one graduate-level CALL course to their teaching
  • What factors influence their use of technology in their classrooms
  • Investigate language teachers pursuit of opportunities for professional development after the CALL course
  • Outline implications for teacher educators

24. Early studies found:

  • The majority of respondents use those applications that they needed to use in their lives outside of school
  • Few teachers actually used telecommunications, hypermedia, or even business programs because they didnt need to use these technologies in their lives outside of the classroom.

25. Findings imply/suggest

  • CALL coursework should focus on the needs of individual teachers and their contexts
  • Teachers are using technology in ways that fit their current practice, rather than transforming their practice through the use of technology

26. Interaction between Coursework and Classroom

  • Teachers could not use their projects they developed in their technology class in their teaching because the schools didnt have the proper facilities.
  • Teachers didnt have enough time to adapt their projects to their specific teaching and school contexts.

27. Early finding: Factors Influencing Technology Use

  • Time pressures both outside and during class
  • Lack of resources and materials
  • Insufficient or inflexible guidelines, standards, and curricula
  • Lack of support or recognition for integrating computers
  • A clash between new technologies and other older ones in schools
  • Lack of leadership and inadequate training and technical support
  • Age, gender, attitudes toward technology
  • Teaching experience


  • Participants:
  • 20 ESL and EFL teachers who had taken the same graduate-level CALL course (L530) within the past 4 years (1996-2000) and who were currently teaching.
  • Data Collection:
  • a paper-based survey questionnaire was developed based on the literature review and the content of the L530 course.


  • Research questions:
  • How do participants learn about CALL activities?
  • How does what they learned in the L530 course interact with their current teaching contexts?
  • What factors influence whether they use computers in their classrooms?
  • How do participants continue to acquire and master new ideas in CALL?

30. CALL Activity Use 0 0 1 Other: taking a personality test on the Web 0 0 1 Other: using a MOO 89 16 18 e-mailing activity 46 6 13 Using an electronic conferencing system 25 1 4 Developing a technology solution for an inquiry project 41 7 17 Reviewing software/Web sites 64 9 14 Developing computer enhanced lesson plans 45 5 11 Creating a personal Web page 33 4 12 Creating an instructional Web page for students/teachers 29 2 7 Creating a WebQuest 62 8 13 Participating in a professional listserv 56 5 9 Creating a Web address book 14 1 7 Developing a hyperstudio stack 53 8 15 Using content based software 36 4 11 Presenting software to the class 0 0 5 e-mail mystery activity 50 6 12 Creating an external document B/A (%) B. had previous experience with A. completed in the course CALL activity 31. CALL Coursework Transfer 0 0 4 Skill-building activities 0 0 1 Word processing 0 0 1 Internet research 0 0 1 Web portfolios 100 12 12 e-mailing activity 50 1 2 Using an electronic conferencing system 0 0 1 Developing a technology solution for an inquiry project 50 1 2 Reviewing software/Web sites 86 6 7 Developing computer enhanced lesson plans 67 2 3 Creating a personal Web page 67 4 6 Creating an instructional Web page for students/teachers 0 0 1 Creating a WebQuest 100 2 2 Participating in a professional listserv 100 1 1 Creating a Web address book 50 1 2 Developing a hyperstudio stack 100 5 5 Using content based software 33 1 3 Presenting software to the class 0 0 1 e-mail mystery activity 100 5 5 Creating an external document B/A (%) B. Did it before and do it now A. Use it now CALL activity 32. Think about it

  • CALL coursework seems to provide an extra practice
  • Do you think CALL coursework has to be redesigned if it is an extra practice?

33. Reasons for not using CALL activities in current teaching 0 Lack of interest 0 Lack of confidence 1 Lack of knowledge 3 Not currently teaching language 3 Lack of resources 4 Administrative or curricular restrictions 6 Lack of time Number Factor 34. Resources for CALL Activities 1 Publisher promotions 1 AskEric 2 Self 2 Electronic discussion lists 2 Courses 4 Journals 4 Conferences 4 Books 5 Web browsing 7 Peers/colleagues Number Resource 35. Limitations of the Study

  • Small sample size and the diversity of participant teaching contexts
  • Participants were all at one time graduate students
  • Potential for error in recall

36. Conclusions

  • Previous experiences (had learned CALL activities before took L530) may be a good predictor of CALL
  • Use colleague and Web resources as primary source for ongoing learning about CALL activities
  • Reasons for not use CALL are: lack of time, administrative or curricular restrictions, or lack of resources
  • The findings point to the need for more contextualized instruction directly related to the teaching environments in which language teachers will be practicing.
  • Findings suggest that a course like L530 is probably insufficient to directly change teachers practice.

37. Implication for Course Design

  • Link novice teachers with experienced computer-using teachers, develop networks of experts, and find school sites that use technology and incorporate these into our courses, providing evidence that teaching and learning can change through the use of technology

38. Discussion

  • What would you like to learn from a CALL course?Technology that you need in your lives, or
  • How can we overcome the barriers of time constraints and limited access?