SOLO Taxonomy to enhance students' questioning and thinking

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Effective Questioning for Engaged Learning

SOLO Taxonomy: Enhancing Students Questioning and ThinkingJohn YeoSingapore

SOLO Taxonomy: Enhancing Students Questioning and ThinkingLessons from Bich Son Primary School (17/12/15)What is SOLO TaxonomyFive levels of SOLO Taxonomy & students questioningThinking together, deeply

Questioning allows students take charge of their own learning

Posing questions allow students to communicate their thinking

Questioning helps students to reason better

Teach students to trust in their knowledge and views

Tell them their contributions matters

Develop habit of posing problemsto relate their thoughts to everyday

But .. some students get stuck with asking same type of questions

Asking QuestionsInquire(to broaden thinking)Probe(to focus thinking)THINKING

Blooms Taxonomy

type of thinking or processing required in completing tasks or answering questions; that is, know, comprehend, apply, analyse,11

SOLO TaxonomySOLO = Structure of the Observed Learning OutcomesDescribes levels of increasing complexity in student's understanding of subjects (Biggs& Collis, 1982) Can be used to assess students intellectual characteristics and the content and quality of the problems they formulate

Five Levels of Understanding

Lower LevelsHigher Levels

Lower vs Higher LevelsLower LevelsHigher LevelsTends to have only one correct answerInvite a range of responses and make progressive demands on student thinkingAsk students to recall facts or to demonstrate simple comprehensionEncourage students to think beyond the isolated facts to authentic and relevant uses of conceptsTypical of surface learningIndicative of a deep approach

*Need to balance both lower and higher order

Open QuestionsAs you think about the state of Thailand, why do you think its founders chose to locate the state capital in BKK?Using the number of males and females in our class, how many ratios can you write?What rules about physical changes can we come up with to help us determine if something has melted or dissolved?


Five Levels of UnderstandingPre-structuralIrrelevant or incorrect information. Student does not have sufficient understanding of knowledge.

Why did Goldilocks stepmother tried to kill her?

Five Levels of UnderstandingUni-structural Student's response only focuses on one correct and relevant aspect

Whose house did Goldilocks go into?

Five Levels of UnderstandingUni-structuralBasic knowledge or textbook informationTends to be factual and procedural questions Verifying with Who? What?When? Where? Why? How?

Where is the Pen?

Five Levels of UnderstandingMulti-structuralStudent's response focuses on several relevant aspects but they are treated independently

What are three aspects aboutthe way the bears live that tell us that the story is not a real life situation?

(i.e., bears dont live in houses, sleep in beds, eat cooked food, bears dont talk, etc.)20

Five Levels of UnderstandingMulti-structural

Listing of itemsGive examplesElaboration

Teacher can encourage students to offer more responses

Mathematics: Adding up to 6

Mathematics: Adding up to 6

Mathematics: Adding up to 6

Mathematics: Adding up to 6

Song I Can Do Anything

Five Levels of UnderstandingRelational The different aspects have become integrated into a coherent whole. Shows adequate understanding of the topic.

Goldilocks eats the baby bears food, breaks his chair, and sleeps in his bed. What does this tell us about the kind of person she is?

From Multistr to Relational: This involves more than getting to know more about a topic or being adept atfollowing through a sequence of procedures; it includes understanding orintegrating what is known into a coherent system wherein the parts are inter-related.This interrelationship comes about as a result of an ability to form an over viewingprinciple which can be derived from the information given28

Five Levels of UnderstandingRelational Needs to see meaningful relationships

Teacher needs to help students form an overview to help students see the relationship/ link.Teacher can provide a list of alternatives to guide students thinking.

Teachers role to provide more feedback and challenge students

Five Levels of Understanding

Extended Abstract Previous ideas now conceptualised at a higher level of abstraction and generalised to a new topic or area.

Why do nursery tales allow wild animals to act in human fashion?

Five Levels of Understanding

Extended Abstract Tends to be open questions with different responses

Teacher can provide a list of possible answers Teacher can teach how to transfer understanding to new tasks and situations

What do you think this story is about?

What do you think will happen next?

Wonderment QuestionsIt would be great if .What might be all the ways How might we .What if.

Asking QuestionsInquire(to broaden thinking - Relational& Extended Abstract levels)Probe(to focus thinking- Uni-structural& Multi-structural levels)THINKING

Asking Higher Order QuestionsHigher order questions tend to offer more choices or variety of solutionsThinking takes time especially with more complex questionsNeed to consolidate answers or solutions individuallyTo challenge students prior knowledge, ask What other questions can you ask? and get them to write it down in a notebook/ journal

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