Social and Cognitive Presence in Virtual Learning Environments

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Reviews and speculates on further development of the Community of Inquiry model (communitiesofinquiry.com) developed in Alberta by Randy Garrison, Terry Anderson, Walter Archer and Liam Rourke. This project developed theory and tools to measure teaching, cognitive and social presence in online environments

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<ul><li> 1. Social and Cognitive Presence in Virtual Learning Environments Terry Anderson, Ph.D. Canada Research Chair in Distance Education [email_address] Keynote lecture - Chais Conference Feb. 20, 2007 Open University of Israel </li> <li> 2. AU </li> <li> 3. <ul><li> Canada is a great country, much too cold for common sense, inhabited by compassionate and intelligent people with bad haircuts. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Yann Martel , Life of Pi, 2002. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 4. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada * Athabasca University <ul><li>Fastest growing university in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>34,000 students </li></ul><ul><li>700 courses </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate and Undergraduate programs </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Master of Distance Education program </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Only USA Accredited University in Canada </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Athabasca University </li></ul></li> <li> 5. <ul><li>An expert is someone more than 500 miles away from home. Prairie folk wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>"Don't be so humble - you are not that great." </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Golda Meir (1898-1978) </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 6. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Development and Evolution of the Community of Inquiry Model </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Cognitive Presence </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Social Presence </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Teaching presence </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Validations and Extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>COI in a Networked Era </li></ul></li> <li> 7. Motivations for the Community of Inquiry Investigation (1998-2004) <ul><li>CMC most widely used tool for interaction in online DE </li></ul><ul><li>Need for a birds-eye view of the overall learning taking place, and to respond to that learning, assess it, and intervene. </li></ul><ul><li>CMC hype &amp; lack of empirical validation of claims </li></ul><ul><li>Need for heuristic guides for both teachers and learners </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to exploit affordances: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Machine readable </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Time independent </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Reflective power of text </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Knowledge hidden in the transcripts </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Need for teacher usable tools to assess interventions </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 8. <ul><li>Story of Assistant Prof Jones: </li></ul></li> <li> 9. Expectations of Models and Theories <ul><li>Create conceptual order and provide simplicity (parsimony) in describing and understanding complex phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li> Science is a way of ordering events. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>J. Bronowski, Common Sense of Science , 1978 </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Improve practice through guidelines and reflection?? </li></ul></li> <li> 10. Methodology- Quantitative Content Analysis <ul><li> The systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, that have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules using statistical methods, </li></ul><ul><li>in order to: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>describe communication, </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>draw inferences about its meaning, </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>infer from the communication to its context, both of production and consumption. (p. 22) Riffe, Lacy, and Fico (1998) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>quantify impressions </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>reveal additional insights that are not obvious from superficial reading or participation. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>allow educational researchers to compare, replicate results, increase understanding. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 11. <ul><li> This article lays out a conceptual framework that identifies the elements that are crucial prerequisites for a successful higher educational experience. </li></ul><ul><li>199 citations in Goggle Scholar </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Communitiesofinquiry.com </li></ul></li></ul>Internet and Higher Education (2002) </li> <li> 12. John Dewey - reflective thinking <ul><li>"Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends". (Dewey, 1933) </li></ul></li> <li> 13. Characteristics of a Community of Inquiry <ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberating </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Mathew Lipman, 2003 </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li> In reality, the reflective model is thoroughly social and communal. p. 25 </li></ul></li> <li> 14. </li> <li> 15. Cognitive Presence <ul><li>Definition: The extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication. </li></ul><ul><li>From Dewey, practical inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Most latent category </li></ul><ul><li>Used full message as unit of analysis </li></ul></li> <li> 16. </li> <li> 17. Cognitive Presence <ul><li> An awareness of the critical thinking and inquiry dynamic is an essential metacognitive ability that encourages students: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>to approach a problem strategically and </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>actively seek out sources of knowledge, </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>discover biases, </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>sift through the increasingly large quantities of information now available, and </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>formulate and defend their own intellectual positions. p. 96 </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 18. Cognitive Presence Coding Results Two Graduate level Courses </li> <li> 19. Phases of Cognitive Presence Meyer, K.(2003) Face-to-face versus threaded discussions: The role of time and higher-order thinking JALN 7(3) </li> <li> 20. Why low rate of problem resolution? <ul><li>Instructional design- no problem to resolve </li></ul><ul><li>Poor teacher guidance/assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution reflected in final papers/exams or case studies not in online discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial context of formal learning- no space for real application </li></ul><ul><li>Poor instrumentation or model </li></ul><ul><li>Online asynch discussion is not powerful enough to support full cognitive presence </li></ul><ul><li>Takes too much time </li></ul></li> <li> 21. Social Presence <ul><li>Social presence is defined as "the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as real people (i.e. their full personality), through the medium of communication being used </li></ul><ul><li>Literature reviewed from filtered-cues (Short, et al. 1976) to hyper-personal (Walther, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Most culturally bound of the presences </li></ul><ul><li> social-emotional literacy appears to be the most complicated of all types of digital literacy </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>(Eshet, 2004) </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 22. Expressing agreement Expression of emotions Affective Behaviours Use of humor Self-disclosure Complimenting, expressing appreciation Asking questions Referring explicitly to others messages. Quoting from others messages. Continuing a thread Interactive Behaviours Phatics, salutations Addresses or refers to the group using inclusive pronouns Vocatives Cohesive Behaviours </li> <li> 23. </li> <li> 24. Social Presence Confirmation <ul><li>Rourke and Anderson (2000) an increase in the perceived frequency (survey results) of 7 of the 15 social expressions corresponded significantly to more positive ratings of the social environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The 7 social expressions included addressing others by name, complimenting, expressing appreciation, using the reply feature to post messages, expressing emotions, using humor, and salutations. </li></ul></li> <li> 25. <ul><li> We argue that cognitive presence is more easily sustained when a significant degree of social presence has been established </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Boot camps (F2F) and profiles </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Value of real time interaction? </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Aided by systems that support photos of participants? </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>SecondLife? Value of expressions and avatars? </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 26. Comparing COI Online vs Face-to-Face Heckman &amp; Annabi (2005) JCMC 10(2) </li> <li> 27. Teaching Presence <ul><li>Defined as: The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educational worthwhile learning outcomes . </li></ul><ul><li>Built upon the familiar models of Moore, Holmberg, Paulsen, and Mason, however provide ways to measure the construct. </li></ul></li> <li> 28. Teaching Presence <ul><li>The transcript analysis allows researcher to disaggregate the roles </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Instructional designer and activity organizer </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Discourse facilitator </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Subject matter expert </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Especially critical in computer conferencing (asynch text) based education systems </li></ul><ul><li>Major cause of course breakdown. </li></ul></li> <li> 29. Macro-level comments about course content Netiquette Utilizing medium Establishing time parameters Designing methods Setting curriculum Instructional design &amp; organization Indicator Category </li> <li> 30. Assess the efficacy of the process Drawing in participants, prompting discussion Setting climate for learning Encouraging, acknowledging, reinforcing contributions Seeking to reach consensus/understanding Identifying areas of agreement/disagreement Facilitating discussion Indicator Category </li> <li> 31. Inject knowledge from diverse sources, e.g., textbook, articles, internet, personal experiences Diagnose misconceptions Confirm understanding through assessment and explanatory feedback. Summarize the discussion Focus the discussion on specific issues Present content Direct Instruction Indicator Category </li> <li> 32. Teaching Presence results: Percentage of instructor messages </li> <li> 33. Percentage of instructor messages with multiple functions </li> <li> 34. Teacher Presence <ul><li>Correlated with perception of learning and learner satisfaction: </li></ul>Shea, Pickett, &amp; Pelz (2003) A FOLLOW-UP INVESTIGATION OF TEACHING PRESENCE IN THE SUNY LEARNING NETWORK. JALN 7(3) .61 .63 Direct instruction .58 .61 facilitating discourse .60 .64 Instructional design Learning Satisfaction </li> <li> 35. Teaching Presence &amp; Peer Moderating <ul><li>Peer teams (3-4 persons) moderated conferences last half of graduate course </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of all three indicators of teacher presence than instructor! </li></ul><ul><li>Many more moderator postings by peers </li></ul><ul><li>Shows value of sharing and delegating teaching presence </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews found insufficient probing by peer facilitators too much share and compare </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Rourke and Anderson, 2002, JIME </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 36. Teaching presence and Peer Moderating <ul><li>De Laat &amp; Lally (2003) Complexity, theory and praxis: Researching collaborative learning and tutoring processes in a networked learning community Instructional Science 31: 739, 2003. </li></ul> 14 of the 26 instances of Teaching Process (54%) in the average ALN discussion were performed by students. In the average FTF discussion, however, only 8 of 148 instances of Teaching Process (5%) were performed by students. Heckman &amp; Annabi (2005) JCMC 10(2) </li> <li> 37. Additions to Our Work on Presences </li> <li> 38. Emotional Presence <ul><li> The extent to which learners and teachers transform their behaviour to accomodate the overt and covert presence of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Campbell and Cleveland-Innes, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Affect in the Community of Inquiry Model, Masters thesis Athabasca University </li></ul></li> <li> 39. Emotional Presence Marti Clevland-Innes and Prisca Campbell (2005) Affect in the Community of Inquiry Model </li> <li> 40. <ul><li>We had included emotional presence as a component of social presence </li></ul><ul><li>Did not allocate emotional as a distinct presence </li></ul><ul><li>But we are REAL men! </li></ul></li> <li> 41. Student Presence <ul><li>Students perceptions of...</li></ul></li></ul>

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