Russia - in the world: past, present, future

  • View
    62

  • Download
    6

Embed Size (px)

Text of Russia - in the world: past, present, future

  • RUSSIA - in the world: past, present, future Eric Van CauwenbergeFormer lecturer KATHO (now VIVES) February 6 & 72017Version 2017

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Welcome - TopicsBackground some history (1)The Russian Federation (9)Introduction name (1)Maps (4)People (9) Structure of Russia (8)Government Profile (29)The president and his wife (20)The Presidential Executive Staff (3)FSB (2)

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Welcome - TopicsEconomic profile (24)Gazprom (18) - Transneft (2) - LUKoil (3)Rosneft (1)Pipelines (6)Russia and the EU (13)Corruption (4)The media (2)Geo-politics (6)Oligarchs (2)Other slides (13)Sources (17)

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Background some historyIn December 1991 splintered the USSR into 15 independent republics the Soviet flag above the Kremlin was lowered for the last time (dec 25th)The Russian Federation was bornRussia emerged from a decade of post-Soviet economic and political turmoil to reassert itself as a world power

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The Russian FederationBoris Yeltsin won the first democratic presidential elections in June 91. Re-elected in July 1996A period of rapid privatization under the rule of President Boris Yeltsin (early 1990s) created a powerful group of magnates - known as "oligarchs" - with vast energy, media and other business interestsA sharp contrast to widespread economic hardship among ordinary Russians

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The Russian Federation (1)Former KGB officer V Putin quickly moved to break the oligarchs' influence - a close-knit circle of his associates has since - directly or indirectly - to a large replaced extent them in their control of key economic assetsIncome from vast natural resources, above all oil and gas, have helped Russia overcome the economic collapse of 1998The state-run gas monopoly Gazprom supplies a large share of Europe's needs in gas and oil

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The Russian Federation (2)Economic strength has allowed Vladimir Putin to enhance state control over political institutions and the mediaA process supplemented more recently by an emphasis on fierce nationalism and hostility to the WestBack by a booming economy (in the 2000s) it adopted a more assertive foreign policy stanceBegan to promote its perceived interests in former Soviet states more openly - even at the cost of antagonizing the West

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The resulting tensions first became acute in August 2008, when a protracted row over two breakaway regions of Georgia escalated into a military conflict between Russia and GeorgiaFurther diplomatic friction followed over US missile defense plans in Eastern Europe - since shelved - and Moscow's role in Iran's nuclear energy programmeA "reset" of Russia-US ties early in 2010 resulted in a new nuclear arms treaty - but fell foul of Kremlin anger at US criticism of its treatment of opposition activist

    The Russian Federation (3)

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The Ukrainian revolution of February 2014, which ousted Russian ally President Viktor Yanukovych and ushered in a Western-leaning leadership, triggered an even more serious crisis in East-West relations - especially after Russia responded by annexing CrimeaThe US, EU and other Western states accused Moscow of directly supporting the subsequent pro-Russian rebellions in eastern UkraineImposed sanctions against businesses and individuals close to President Putin

    The Russian Federation (4)

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Add to this Syria's increasing military support for the Assad government in Syria's civil war - some begin to fear the start of a protracted stand-off between West and Russia Even a new Cold WarRussia's recent economic power has lain in its key natural resources - oil and gasThe energy giant Gazprom is close to the Russian state and critics say it is little more than a tool used by the Kremlin to bolster control both at home and abroad

    The Russian Federation (5)

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Moscow has more than once reminded the rest of the world of the power it wields as a major energy supplier - most recently in the Ukraine conflict in 2014 A long economic boom based on high oil and gas prices started to end in 2013, when Russia's economic prospects began to worsenThis was exacerbated by a sharp fall in world oil prices and the imposition of Western sanctions over Ukraine the following yearThe country is now ruled by the St Petersburg set

    The Russian Federation (6)

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The economy is still too dependent on raw material exports - the Putin regime's reluctance to embark on reform to encourage diversification for fear of imperiling its controlRussians make up more than 80% of the population -Orthodox Christianity is the main religion - there are many other ethnic and religious groups - Muslims are concentrated among the Volga Tatars, the Bashkirs (North Caucasus)Separatists and latterly armed Islamists have made the Caucasus region of Chechnya a war zone

    The Russian Federation (7)

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    The Russian Federation (8)Area: 17.098.242 square kilometres - 11 time zones - comparison to the world: 1Population: 143.375.006 million (2017 est.)Capital: Moscow (12 million) largest city in Russia1.8 times the size of the USA - 518 times Belgium9th in the ranking of the population numberEtnic groups Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir-Chuvash-Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, (2010 est.) - nearly 200 national and/or ethnic groups are represented

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Introduction - NameConventional long form: Russian Federation Conventional short form: Russia Local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya:

    Local short form: Rossiya - Former Russian EmpireRussian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Map general map

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Map general map*

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Map surrounding countries*

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Map in perspective*

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    People Median age

    total: 38.9 years male: 36.4 years female: 42.3 years (2016 est.)Population growth rate

    - 0.05 % (2017 est.) - ranking 207thDeath rate is double the average for developed countries

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    People (1)Life expectancy at birth

    total population: 70.8 years USA 79.8 EU 80.2 yearsmale: 65 years - female: 76.8 years (2016 est.) country comparison to the world: 153Total fertility rate

    1.67 children born/woman (2017 est.) country comparison to the world: 179thDeath rate

    13.6 deaths/1.000 population (2016 est.) USA 8.2/1000 country comparison to the world: 10th

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    People (2)Infant mortality rate

    total: 6.9 deaths/ 1.000 live births - USA 5.8 deaths/1.000 live births - EU 4 deaths/1.000 live births country comparison to the world: 161thHIV/people living with HIV/aids

    980.000 (2009 est.) - country comparison to the world: 12thLiteracy (definition: age 15 and over can read and write)

    total population: 99.7% male: 99.7% - female: 99.6% (2015 est.)

    **

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    People (3) Evolution of population

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    People (4) Population Pyramid

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    People (5) the problem of Russia*

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of RussiaGovernment type

    federation

    Capital

    Moscow (S Sobaynin)

    Administrative divisions

    46 oblasts, 21 republics, 4 autonomous okrugs, 9 krays, 2 federal cities*

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of Russia (1)46 Oblasts to compare with a province 4 autonomous okrougs = districts - governor21 autonomous republics - a president, parliament - a representative in the Duma9 autonomous krays = territories2 federal citiesEach 2 representatives in the federation council

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    *Administrative divisions

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of Russia (2)South (*) including Crimea, annexed by Russia - 2014Federal Districts: federalnyje okroega (8)

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of Russia (3)Federal districts: federalnyje okroega - groupings of the federal subjects of RussiaAll federal units are grouped under 8 districtsHeaded by the governor-general - Nominated by the president - Plenipotentiary Representative of the President - presidential decreeSince May 13 2000 created by Putin to have more power on internal affairs (terrorism)To reassert federal authorityFederal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia

    *

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of Russia (4)Independence

    24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)National holiday

    Russia Day, 12 June (1990)Constitution

    adopted 12 December 1993 Now 23 years

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of Russia (5)Legal system

    based on civil law systemSuffrage

    18 years of age universalFlag description

    three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red*

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Structure of Russia branches of power (6)*

    *

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Government profile The executive BExecutive BranchThe presidentThe Presidential Executive OfficeThe governmentThe prime ministerThe deputy prime ministersMinistersFederal services-agenciesSecurity councilState council

    Eric Van Cauwenberge

    Government Profile Executive branch

    Chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin

    Elected on March 4, 2012 (63.6 %)Elected for six years by the citizens on the basis of a general, equal and direct vote by secret ballot