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Romanticism: Ingres and Delacroix

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  • Romanticism in FranceIngres and Delacroix

  • The leading figures in 19th century French art were Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

    and Eugene Delacroix

  • Each represented the rival schools of Neoclassicism and Romanticism, as seen in

    this 19th century caricature depicting the two artists jousting in front of the Institut de

    France

    Ingres: champion

    of line

    Delacroix:

    champion of color

  • A pupil of Jacques Louis David, Ingres was the leading exponent of Neoclassicism,

    and was renowned as the champion of crisp line and contour, as indicated by the

    fine tipped pen that he wields as his weapon

    Ingres: champion

    of line

  • Delacroix was the leading representative of Romanticism, and was known for his

    bravura use of color and painterly effects, indicated by the paint brush that he carries

    as his weapon

    Delacroix:

    champion of color

  • The rivalry between these two giants of the 19th century Academy replayed the 17th

    century academic debate between the Poussinistes (who favored drawing and

    design) and the Rubenistes (who favored color)

    Delacroix:

    champion of colorIngres: champion

    of line

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    This painting by Ingres was submitted to the Salon of 1827, and was a kind of

    manifesto of Neoclassicism

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    Based on Raphaels School of Athens, the painting depicts the Greek poet Homer

    enthroned before a Greek Classical temple

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    Allegorical figures representing his two great works, The Odyssey and The Iliad are

    seated beneath his throne, symmetrically arranged like mirrored images of one

    another

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    The blind poet is crowned by a winged Nike, and he is surrounded by famous artists

    and writers from history, who acknowledge his great achievement

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    Amongst them are Phidias, Michelangelo, and Poussin

    Phidias

    Michelangelo

    Poussin

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    Symmetrical, ordered, and balanced, the picture is a tribute to the rational values of

    the classical tradition

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Self Portrait at Age 24, 1804; revised 1850

    Muse Cond

    Ingres chief rival in the 19th century French Academy was Eugene Delacroix, who

    rejected the values of Neoclassicism (an entry in his diary reads: I dislike

    reasonable painting.)

    Eugene Delacroix, Self Portrait, 1837

    Muse du Louvre, Paris

  • Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Self Portrait at Age 24, 1804; revised 1850

    Muse Cond

    While Ingres style is slick, polished, and reserved (his teacher Jacques Louis

    David told his students: never let your brushwork show), Delacroixs style is

    loose, spontaneous, and impetuous, expressing an unrestrained passion that

    contrasts with Ingres cool Neoclassical style

    Eugene Delacroix, Self Portrait, 1837

    Muse du Louvre, Paris

  • Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Self Portrait at Age 24, 1804; revised 1850

    Muse Cond

    While Ingres painted with precision and calculation, Delacroix painted with passion

    and spontaneity

    Eugene Delacroix, Self Portrait, 1837

    Muse du Louvre, Paris

    I paint with

    my heart

    I paint with

    my head

  • Delacroixs Death of Sardanapalus, painted in 1826, is a classic example of

    Romanticism

  • The painting is based on a story recounted by an ancient Greek historian about an

    Assyrian King whose city was under siege by an enemy army

  • Rather than suffer the humility of defeat, he orders his soldiers to slaughter his

    horses and his concubines, before setting himself on fire

  • The scene is one of chaotic violence, as naked bodies and horses struggle to

    escape their fate

  • The sadistic king reclines impassively on a massive bed, decorated at the corners

    by carved elephant heads

  • His decadent taste for luxuries is evident in the splendor of his surroundings, and

    the heavy jewelry worn by his concubines (in fact, the king himself wears rings on

    every toe!)

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    Unlike Ingres Apotheosis of Homer (which was exhibited at the same Salon)

    Delacroixs picture does not pay tribute to a noble hero

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Instead, it depicts a scene of sadistic violence and passion, betraying a morbid

    fascination with human depravity rather than noble virtue

  • The style is also dramatically different

  • Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827

    Louvre

    While Ingres work is balanced and restrained, with clear even lighting, cool colors,

    and crisp outlines

    http://www.louvre.fr/llv/oeuvres/detail_notice.jsp?CONTENTcnt_id=10134198673225735&CURRENT_LLV_NOTICEcnt_id=10134198673225735&FOLDERfolder_id=9852723696500815&baseIndex=46&bmLocale=en

  • Delacroixs painting is chaotically arranged, with swirling bodies, and a strong

    diagonal that rushes headlong into space

  • And in contrast to Ingres precisely rendered figures, Delacroixs style is loose,

    sketchy, and impetuous as if painted quickly, and with passion

  • The colors, too, are rich, lush, and fiery, rather than cool and detached, providing a

    visual equivalent to the dark passions of the theme

  • Delacroixs use of color was influenced by Rubens, and by the Venetian masters of

    the Renaissance, but it was also informed by new scientific theories about the

    properties of color, as seen in this color wheel from a book that belonged to the

    artist

  • The diagram shows primary and secondary colors, with their complimentary colors

    at the other end of the axis

  • Color theory teaches us that complementary colors intensify one another a red

    against a green, or a blue against an orange, makes the colors pop with an

    intensity they would not have against a different background

  • Delacroix used this understanding of color extensively in his paintings, as in this

    detail where we see a green sash draped haphazardly across the kings bed

  • The complimentary colors intensify one another, making the colors literally pop,

    and adding to the overall drama of the picture the picture

  • Neoclassicism Romanticism

    The contrast between these two works sums up the competing values of

    Neoclassicism and Romanticism

  • Neoclassicism Romanticism

    Emphasis on reason and virtue Emphasis on feelings, emotion

    human nature, which is not always

    virtuous or noble

  • Neoclassicism Romanticism

    Style: painted with the headSmooth finishBalanced, ordered, harmonious

    Style: painted with the heart

    Loose, sketchy brushstroke

    Expressive color, dynamic

    composition, dramatic lighting

  • Neoclassicism Romanticism

    Subject MatterHistoricalExemplars of virtue

    Subject Matter

    Themes from literature & the

    imagination

    Exotic people & places

    Horrific events

  • I recommend that you watch this video on Delacroixs use of color, from the

    National Gallery of Art, London

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