2. Origin The concept "reflective thought" was introduced by John Dewey in 1910 in his "How We Think", a work designed for teachers. Dewey's most basic assumption was that learning improves to the degree that it arises out of the process of reflection. As time went on, terminology concerning reflection proliferated, spawning a host of synonyms, such as "critical thinking," "problem solving," and " higher level thought."
3. Reflective Teaching The processes of analyzing and making judgments about what has happened. Dewey (1933) suggests that reflective thinking is an active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge, of the grounds that support that knowledge, and the further conclusions to which that knowledge leads.
4. Benefits Reflective thinking helps learners develop higher-order thinking skills by prompting learners to a) relate new knowledge to prior understanding, b) think in both abstract and conceptual terms, c) apply specific strategies in novel tasks, and d) understand their own thinking and learning strategies.
5. Guidelines for Its Effective Use 1. Allocate sufficient time for reflection. Time must be considered in planning the learning activity. 2. Schedule a short briefing activity so as to recapture the experience and think about it. 3. The teacher serves as the facilitator and guide in developing skills in analyzing a past learning experience.
6. 4. Encourage the students to recount the experience to others, thereby strengthening the insights gained. 5. Attend to feelings especially the positive and pleasant ones. 6. Evaluate the experience in the light of the learners intent. Guidelines for Effective Use
7. Strategies 1) Self-analysis A reflective student/teacher is able to keep a record of his/her success or failure in employing a strategy, problems and issues confronted, and significance of learning events that occurred. A student/teacher engages himself/herself in self-analysis when s/he reflects on why s/he succeeded or failed at some task.
8. Strategies 2) Writing journals A journal entry includes: a) a description of the teaching/learning event, b) outcomes of the event, c) value or worthiness of the outcomes, and d) causes of success or failures. For a student, s/he is asked to enter into his/her daily journal/diary his own self- analysis.
9. Strategies 3) Portfolio A portfolio is a very personal document which includes frank, honest and on-the-spot account of experiences. It includes a students first hand observations and personal knowledge that will be needed in analyzing changes in values being developed.
10. Some Guide Questions for STUDENTS Was I motivated enough to continue on? Am I learning from the activity? If so, why? If not, why? Am I relating the lesson to my knowledge and interests? How can I do better? How good was my personal management skills?
11. Some Guide Questions for TEACHERS Did I motivate them enough to continue on? Are the students learning from the activity? If so, why? If not, why? Am I relating the lesson to their knowledge and interests? How can I do better? How good was my classroom management skills?
12. Reflective Thinking Process
13. Example (Reflective Activity for Students) In a juvenile literature subject, the teacher wanted to test the students knowledge about the story Jack and the Beanstalk. He then started by asking a question: Teacher: What did Jack do when he got to the giant's castle? Student: Jack hid from the giant, found the goose that lays the golden eggs, was discovered by the giant, fled, reached the bottom of the vine, and then chopped it down. The giant, of course, tumbles down, breaks his neck, and Jack lives happily ever after with his mother and his newly found wealth.
14. Teacher: Did Jack trespass illegally? Students: Yes! Teacher: Did Jack steal the goose that lays golden eggs? Students: Yes! Teacher: Did Jack, then, refuse to give back what did not belong to him? Student: Yes! Teacher: Then did Jack escape down the bean vine and cause the giant to be killed? Student: Yes! Teacher: If Jack trespassed, stole, and murdered the giant, why is the giant the villain of this story?
15. 'It is not sufficient simply to have an experience in order to learn. Without reflecting upon this experience it may quickly be forgotten, or its learning potential lost. It is from the feelings and thoughts emerging from this reflection that generalizations or concepts can be generated. And it is generalizations that allow new situations to be tackled effectively.' Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods London, UK: Further Education Unit.
16. Resources Corpuz, B. S. (2013). Principles of teaching 1 (3rd ed. ed.). Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc. Sage Publisher. (2005, April 1). Retrieved July 16, 2015, from Sage Publication: http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm -binaries/6681_taggart_ch_1.pdf Shermis, S. (1999, November). Reflective thought, critical thinking. ERIC Digest . Zulueta, F. (2006). Principles and methods of teaching. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.