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BRAIN PARTS RECAP

Q3L05 - Limbic System

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Page 1: Q3L05 - Limbic System

BRAIN PARTS RECAP

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THE BRAIN SO FAR….

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CORPUS CALLOSUM

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CEREBRUM

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CEREBRAL CORTEX

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FRONTAL LOBE

BROCA’S AREA

MOTOR CORTEX

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PARIETAL LOBE

SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX

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OCCIPITAL LOBE

VISUAL CORTEX

VISUAL ASSOCIATION AREA

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TEMPORAL LOBE

Auditory cortex

Auditory association area

Wernicke’s Area

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LIMBIC SYSTEM

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LIMBIC SYSTEM

KEY PARTS:

1) AMYGDALA2) HIPPOCAMPUS3) HYPOTHALAMUS4) CINGULATE GYRUS

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AMYGDALA (Latin for ‘almond’)• Involved in processing emotions (in

particular, learning and remembering emotionally significant events).

• Important in fear responses.

• Links areas of the cortex that process higher cognitive information with systems that control metabolic responses fight or flight

• Damage:Case study – damage to amygdala in both hemispheres. No motor, sensory or cognitive deficits, but when asked to identify photographs of a series of facial expressions, SM could identify every expression but one – FEAR.

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HIPPOCAMPUS

• The structure most associated to memory formation.

• An early storage place for long-term memory and involved in the transition of LTM to even more permanent memory.

• Also plays a role in spatial navigation

• Damage:Case study: Clive Wearing had extensive damage to the left and right hippocampus. Intellectual and perceptual abilities intact, but has severe memory impairments, losing ability to form new memories.

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• Regulates automatic functions (hunger, thirst, body temperature, sexual activity)

• Controls release of hormones

• Integrates information from many different parts of the brain and is responsive to a variety of stimuli:i) light ii) odoursiii) stressiv) arousal

HYPOTHALAMUS

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CINGULATE GYRUS

• Helps regulate emotions and pain.

• Involved in fear and the prediction (and avoidance) of negative consequences and can help orient the body away from negative stimuli.

• Damage: inappropriate emotions, lack of fear, impaired sensation of pain, learning impairments

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BRAIN STEM

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The Brain Stem

• Consists of a group of structures that lie deep within the brain.

• Plays important role in maintaining homeostasis by controlling automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

• Can organise motor movements such as reflexes, and coordinate with the motor cortex and associated areas to contribute to fine movements of limbs and the face.

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In the brain stem…

• Midbrain

• Pons

• Medulla

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Midbrain

• Includes structures involved in vision and hearing (tectum) and movement (tegmentum).

Pons• Region most closely associated with breathing and

respiratory rhythms.• Forms a bridge between the cerebrum and

cerebellum• Involved in sensory analysis and is the site at which

auditory information enters the brain.

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Medulla

• Formal name – medulla oblongata

• An extension of the spinal cord linking to the brain.

• 3.5cm long and 2cm wide.

• Neither humans nor other animals can survive destruction of the medulla.

• Controls heartbeat, circulation and respiration.

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Thalamus

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Thalamus

• About 5.7 cm in length

• Processes sensory information as it arrives and transmit it to higher brain centres (the cortex).

• Like a switchboard!

• Not only route messages but also to filter them, highlighting some and de-emphasisingothers.

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Damage

• Thalamic lesion linked to synaethesia

• Small but significant reduction in thalamus volume in schizophrenia.

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Cerebellum

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Cerebellum

• Roughly 10% of total brain weight, but contains more neurons than the rest of the brain combined!

• Responsible for coordinating movement, planning, motor activities, learning and remembering of physical skills.

• Size is a good indicator of its physical capability

• Some recent studies have associated the cerebellum with cognitive functions, such as learning and attention.

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Damage

• Tremors

• Muscle weakness

• Inability to walk

• Slurred speech

• Linked to:

• Dyslexia, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis