Project 01 - Experiencing Construction

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BUILDINGCONSTRUCTIONASSIGNMENT ONE : EXPERIENCING CONSTRUCTIONTutor:AR. SATEERAH HASSANMembers:NG LEK YUEN 0324010NG PUI YAN 0324785MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI 0324757TING XIAO YAO 0328663ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN 0323838WAJEEHA KAHN 0328484TABLE OF CONTENT1. Introduction and Group Member detail | NG PUI YAN2. Site Safety | NG PUI YAN3. Preliminaries Work | TING XIAO YAO4. Foundations | NG LEK YUEN5. Superstructures | NAIM ROSLI6. Roof | ARRON GOH7. Doors and Windows | ARRON GOH8. Summary | WAJEEHA & NG LEK YUEN0105101722323543INTRODUCTIONby NG PUI YANFor this project, we were required to visibly demonstrate the subject topics covered in the syllabus through an ongoing construction site. In a group of 6, we were required to carry out an analysis as well as documentation of the site through visual images, annotated sketches and drawings. The result of the research as well as analysis are then clearly shown on this report. 01INTRODUCTION by NG PUI YAN1.1 Group Members DetailThe tasks are efficeettly seearateed tto eessre that the centorratctoe aeed aeatlyscstobtaceeed are wett edtoisreeteed. The edetegatctoe ton ttoecis cs as ntotttows: Ietrtoedsitctoe ton scte aeed Scte Sanetly - Ng Psc YaePretcrcearly wtorks - Xcato YatoFtoseedatctoe - Ng Lek YseeSseerstrsitsre - Nacr RtostcDtotors, Wceedtows aeed Rtotons - Arrtoe Gtoh Swee TceeSsrrarly - Wajeeha Kahe(Frtor tent tto rcght: Ng Lek Ysee, Ng Psc Yae, Nacr Rtostc, Tceg Xcato Yato, Arrtoe Gtoh aeed Mr. Tae)1.2 Introduction to siteAededress:Ltot 1074, Mskcr Cheras, Daerah Hsts Laegat, Setaegtor Darst Ehsae, Tetsae Maha-jalya Prtoeertly Sede Bhed.Osr edtoisreeteed scte itoescsts ton 84 terraie sects (2 Fttotors Tlyee A 22 x 70) , 14 ter-raie sects (2 Fttotors Tlyee A1 22 x 70 Varces) , 1 terraie sect ( 2 Fttotors Tlyee A2 26 x 70) , 36 ttowehtosse (18 sects 2 Fttotors) - Tlyee TH (22 x 70) , 1 ttowe htosse sect (2 Fttotors ) - Tlyee TH 2 (22 x 70) , 1 eteitrciat ssbstatctoe.The scte itoescsts ton edcffereet itoestrsitctoe stages aiitoredceg tto the sects. Store sect htosses are at a ehase where toetly the ntoseedatctoe aeed etsrbceg wtork cs itoretet-eed aeed sto toe. The ttoetograehly ton the scte cs nacrtly flat thrtosghtost the eetcre scte. The edcagrar shtows the toveratt scte etae ton the toegtoceg itoestrsitctoe scte. 02INTRODUCTION by NG PUI YAN1.3 Main Access RoadThe race aiiess rtoaed cs where rtosttly itoestrsitctoe vehcites as wett as wtorkers eeter tor teave the scte. The race eetraeie rtoaed cs raede wceder itoreareed tto tother rtoaeds tto ease the aiiess ton rsttcete vehcites at toeie. 1.4 Temporary Welfare and Storage AreaThe wetnare as wett as sttorage area are ttoiateed etot nar nrtor the scte eetraeie. The itoestrsitctoe ratercats are arraegeed eeattly aeed est ce the sare area aiitoredceg tto the tlyees ton ratercats. Meaewhcte the teretorarly wetnare rtotor ertovcedes a shetter ntor wtorkers nrtor the scte tto rest.03INTRODUCTION by NG PUI YAN1.6 Water Supply and DrainageWater sseetly sttoreed ce water taeks toe scte are ttoiateed eearbly the eetraeie ntor washceg exctceg itoestrsitctoe vehcites. Draces are atsto avactabte tto ihaeeet the wa-ter tost ton the scte. 1.5 Construction AreaThe itoestrsitctoe area itoescstceg ton the toegtoceg bsctedceg ton the terraies are bsctt at edcffereet stages. Matercats that wtosted be sseed tto itoetcese itoestrsitceg the bsctedceg ssih as staikeed ereiast itoeirete bttoiks are etaieed ce nrtoet ton the bsctedceg. The ratercats ce nrtoet ton the bsctedceg are eeattly arraegeed ce staiks cesteaed ton beceg edsreeed ntor sanetly esretoses ton the wtorkers as wett as ceitorceg vehcites. 04SITE SAFETYby NG PUI YANSite safety is a very crucial action in a construction site as it applies to the space as well as vehicles use during construction. Improper actions and lack of caution can lead to minor accidents todisastrous accidents. Site safety is responsible to ensure that the construction area is a safeenvironment for all workers to work in good conditions.052.1.1 Construction Safety SignboardThe itoestrsitctoe sanetly scge btoared cs etaieed eearbly the eetraeie ton the itoestrsitctoe scte tto ertoteit aeed rerceed wtorkers aeed the esbtci abtost thecr sanetly artoseed the scte. Geeerat sanetly reassres ssih as the ertoeer attcre as wett as sanetly reassres are shtowe toe the btoared. Er-ettolyers are ce iharge ton ertovcedceg centorratctoe tto erettolyees toe the reaeceg aeed reqscre-reets ton aely scges sseed ce the itoestrsitctoe scte, eseeicattly where text toe sseetereetarly scge-btoareds cs sseed. 2.1.2 Scaffolding Siafftoteds aiicedeets iasse ae estcrateed 4,500 cejsrces aeed 50 natatctces eaih lyear. Siafftoted aiicedeets haeeee whee siafftoteds are etot ereiteed tor sseed ertoeertly therentore natt hazareds toiisr. Att nrarewtork rsst be racseed, edcsasserbteed aeed rtoedcfieed ce a shettereed waly. Ftor etatntorrs that natt tost-scede the exteet ton a bly aeed targe eeriecveed staeedared setse the etae rsst be tto ssih ae exteet that ertoteiteed ereitctoe aeed edcsasserbtceg ertoieedsres iae tckewcse be stctczeed att thrtosgh the seae ton the wtorks. Tto gsaraetee streegth ntor rtore eeretexceg nrarewtorks, edrawcegs tosght tto be ireateed aeed, where cretortaet, these raly shtosted be sseetereet-eed wcth eartcistar edcreitctoes. Aely ertoetoseed aedjsstreet tor ihaege that takes a nrarewtork tostscede the exteet ton a ntor the rtost eart eeriecveed staeedared setse tosght tto be tost-tceeed bly a skcttnst ceedcvcedsat aeed edertoestrateed bly estcra-tctoe.SITE SAFETY by NG PUI YAN062.1.3 Waste DisposalDevettoereet wastes itoescsts ton sewaeteed ratercats erto-edsieed edcreittly tor ceicedeetattly edsrceg itoestrsitctoe tor bly the edevettoereet ton ceedsstrces. Thcs ceitoretorates bsctedceg ratercats, ntor exarete, ertoteitctoe, eacts, eteitrciat wcrceg, shcegte, aeed ratercat aeed ce aededctctoe nrtor scte etaeeceg, ntor exarete, edcggceg ratercats, tree stsres, aeed rsbbte. Devet-toereet waste raly itoetace teaed, asbesttos, tor edcffereet rcskly ssbstaeies. Msih bsctedceg waste cs itorercseed ton ratercats, ntor exarete, bttoiks, iereet aeed wtotoed harreed tor sesseed ntor edcffereet reastoes ton arced edevettoereet. Observatctoeat researih has edertoestrateed thcs iae be as hcgh as 10 tto 15% ton the ratercats that gto cetto a bsctedceg, a itoescederabtly hcgh-er rate thae the 2.5-5% geeerattly exeeiteed bly artoset ssr-velytors aeed the edevettoereet bssceess. Sceie creresscve ce-itoestaeily excsts betweee edevettoereet edestceatctoes, there cs rsih toeee edtotor ntor tesseeceg thcs waste.SITE SAFETY by NG PUI YAN2.1.4 Ladders & Stepladders Laededers aeed stacrwalys are aetother stosrie ton wtoseeds aeed natatctces artoeg itoestrsitctoe tabtosrers edse tto ceaeertoercate ssage ton taededers as wett as stacr-walys. The ertoeer ssage ton taededers aeed stacrwalys iae be ntotttoweed bly ee-ssrceg the itorreit teegth as wett as the itorreit tlyee ton taededer sseed at the ssctabte ttoiatctoe. Aeart nrtor that, the taededer tor the stacrwaly has tto be abte tto staly firr toe the grtoseed It cs estcrateed that there are 24,882 cejsrces aeed as raely as 36 natatctces ntor eaih lyear beiasse ton natts toe stacrwalys aeed stees stctczeed as a eart ton edevettoereet. 07SITE SAFETY by NG PUI YAN2.1.5 Material Storage On Site Everly itoestrsitctoe scte reqscres a seaie tto sttore the ratercats toe scte. Ae ceaeertoercate sttorage area wtosted teave the ratercats ex-etoseed tto thent bly seasthtorcseed treseassers, itoetarceatctoe. Sane aeed efficeet ratercats sttorage edeeeeeds toe gtotoed ito-toeeratctoe aeed ito-toredceatctoe betweee everlytoee cevtotveed ceitsedceg, itceet, itoetraittors, sseetcers aeed the itoestrsitctoe traedes. Ae aeertoercate sttorage area wctt have edescgeateed sttorage areas ntor etaet, ratercats, waste, flarrabte ssbstaeies, exarete: ntoar etastcis, flar-rabte tcqsceds aeed gases ssih as ertoeaee aeed hazaredtoss ssbstaeies ntor ex eestcicedes aeed tcrber treatreet iherciats.08SITE SAFETY ( PLANTS AND MACHINERY ) by NG PUI YAN2.2.1 ExcavatorAe exiavattor iae etost raely threats ce the itoestrsitctoe scte cn ct cs haeedteed bly the wrtoeg haeeds. The race hazareds iasseed bly the exiavattor cs whee ct cs rtovceg, where ct raly have the etoteetcat tto strcke a eeedestrcae, eartcistartly whcte ct cs reversceg. Stewceg raly atsto toiisr wherebly the eerstoe wctt be traeeeed betweee the exiavattor aeed the fixeed strsitsre tor vehc-ite. Therentore the eerstoe itoetrtottceg the exiavattor has tto be traceeed itoreeteet aeed asthtor-cseed tto toeerate the seeicfii exiavattor. As wett as beceg itoreeteet aeed asthtorcseed tto edcreit exiavattor rtovereets. 2.2.2 BulldozerBsttedtozers are edescgeeed tto ist aeed essh targe qsaetctces ton ratercat ce a ratter ton seitoeeds. Wcth thecr eetorrtoss scze, thely iae iasse serctoss cejsrly aeed evee edeath, cn etot toeerateed ertoe-ertly. A bsttedtozer iae etost raely threats ce the itoestrsitctoe scte cn ct cs haeedteed bly the wrtoeg haeeds. The eegcee shtosted be starteed toetly whee seateed toe the toeerattors seat aeed whee the eath cs itear ton wtorkers, tobjeits aeed tother tobstrsitctoes. Bsttedtozers shtosted be keet awaly nrtor toverheaed etower tcees. 2.2.3 Crane LiftA iraee cs a tlyee ton raihcee, geeerattly eqsceeeed wcth a htocst rtoee, wcre rtoees tor ihaces, aeed sheaves, that iae be sseed btoth tto tcnt aeed ttower ratercats aeed tto rtove ther htorcztoetat-tly. Ctoetrtotters shtosted take att eraitciabte stees tto eessre that iraees are ce a sane itoeedctctoe aeed are toeerateed sanetly. Thely shtosted eessre that thely seedergto regstar ceseeitctoes aeed ertoe-er raceteeaeie. Tto eessre sanetly whcte ssceg iraee tcnt toe scte, the iraee shtosted be wtorkceg toe a stabte grtoseed as wett as iarrlyceg the ssctabte artoset ton wecght. Lasttly, the iraee tcnt shtosted be racetaceeed bly gettceg iheik ses nrtor tcre tto tcre tto eessre that the vehcite cs stctt nseitctoe.09PRELIMINARY WORKSby TING XIAO YAOPreliminary works in a construction means all activities and preparation that has to becarried out before the main construction work commences in order for it to go smoothly.10PRELIMINARY WORKS by TING XIAO YAO3.1 Site ClearanceScte itearaeie cs the itoreststorly ertoieedsre tto rertove aely tobstrsitceg etereets ssih as vegetatctoe ntoseed toe scte tto ereeare ntor exiavatctoe tor strsitsre bsctedceg. It cevtotves:- Dertotctctoe aeed rertovat ton excstceg bsctedcegs aeed strsitsres.- Grsbbceg tost ton bsshes aeed trees.- Rertove the ttoe stoct tto reedsie tevets.STEP 1. Fcrst, vegetatctoe cs rertoveed. A bsttedtozer cs sse tto sertotot the trees.STEP 2. Thee, the bsttedtozer cs sseed tto rertove the iteareed vegetatctoe nrtor the scte. The sertototeed trseks aeed ttotose rtoiks are essheed ttowared a itotteitctoe etocet. Tatter aeed heavcer trseks that iaeetot be essheed bly the bsttedtozer are ttoweed awaly bly aetother raihceerly. Exiavattorrertovceg ttoestoct toe scte.STEP 3.Next, the ttoestoct at 30ir cs rertoveed beiasse ct itoetaces edeialyceg torgaeci ratter aeed rtotots. Thcs eart ton the stoct cs sestabte as a itoestrsitctoe ratercat ntor ntoseedatctoe aeed strsitsre bsctedceg. STEP 4.Lasttly, exiavate the edescreed edeeth aeed traesetort thettoestoct tto aetother seaie as ct iae be resseed tater.11PRELIMINARY WORKS by TING XIAO YAO3.2 Site LevelingA ertoiess where earth cs rtoveed nrtor toee etaie tto aetother tto tevet the grtoseed. ist cs whee the earth cs rertoveed nrtor the ttoe whcte fitt cs whee a htote ce the grtoseed cs fitteed.12PRELIMINARY WORKS by TING XIAO YAO3.3 Setting OutSettceg tost, Atsto ketowe as Ctoestrsitctoe Ssrvelyceg tor Stakceg, cs the aitcvctly ton talyceg edtowe rarkers tor ceedciattors that wctt eeabte the etaeeceg aeed tto iteartly edefiee the exiavatctoe btoseedarces aeed grtoseed tcees. Settceg tost cs sssattly iarrceed tost ce raely itoestrsitctoe erto-jeits, etot tcrcteed tto bsctedcegs, bst atsto rtoaeds, eceetcees, aeed itoeirete nrares. Phlysciat neatsres that aeeear toe the etae are rarkeed tost. ce toreder tto itorreittly ttoiate ther. A itotoredceate slyster cs sseed ce toreder tto iarrly tost these ssrvelys. A seeicatcst ssrvelytor wctt sse thcs itotoredceate slyster tto ntorr a grced that wctt reereseet the rtows aeed itotsres ton the watts ton the basci strsitsre. Thcs iae be tobserveed ce the ecitsre tto the tent.Settceg Ost Aeed Cheikceg MethtoedsSTEP 1:Estabtcsh a basetcee nrtor whcih the whtote ton the bsctedceg iae be set tost. The etosctctoe ton thcs tcee rsst be iteartly rarkeed toe scte sto that ct iae be re-estabtcsheed at aelytcre.STEP 2:Set tost the race tcees ton bsctedceg, eaih itoreer beceg rarkeed wcth a sttost eeg.STEP 3:A iheik shtosted etow be raede ton the set-tceg-tost tcees ntor rcght aegtes aeed itoeeeit teegths.STEP 4:Prtofite btoareds are set se at att treeih aeed watt ceterseitctoes.Tlyeciat Prtofite Btoareds13PRELIMINARY WORKS by TING XIAO YAO3.4 EarthworksSettceg tost, Atsto ketowe as Ctoestrsitctoe Ssrvelyceg tor Stakceg, cs the aitcvctly ton talyceg edtowe rarkers tor ceedciattors that wctt eeabte the etaeeceg aeed tto iteartly edefiee the exiavatctoe btoseedarces aeed grtoseed tcees. Settceg tost cs sssattly iarrceed tost ce raely itoestrsitctoe erto-jeits, etot tcrcteed tto bsctedcegs, bst atsto rtoaeds, eceetcees, aeed itoeirete nrares. Phlysciat neatsres that aeeear toe the etae are rarkeed tost. ce toreder tto itorreittly ttoiate ther. A itotoredceate slyster cs sseed ce toreder tto iarrly tost these ssrvelys. A seeicatcst ssrvelytor wctt sse thcs itotoredceate slyster tto ntorr a grced that wctt reereseet the rtows aeed itotsres ton the watts ton the basci strsitsre. Thcs iae be tobserveed ce the ecitsre tto the tent.Earthwtork iheiktcst ce Bsctedceg Ctoestrsitctoe:1. Services Connection Bentore startceg earthwtork rake ssre there are eto servcies tcee ssih as eteitrciat itoeeeitctoe, water sseetly aeed edraceage itoeeeitctoe, teteehtoee tcee eti. bettow grtoseed.2. BenchmarkMark lytosr edescreed tevet ce a eerraeeet etaie. Ytostt eeeed thcs rark thrtosgh the ertojeit edsratctoe.3. Side-slope in excavationDsrceg earth exiavatctoe iheik that sttoee cs racetaceeed ce scede-sttoee.4. Base soilCheik the base stoct, toe whcih bsctedcegs ntoseedatctoe wctt rest, cs hared eetosgh. Ytos raly itoesstt getoteiheciat eegceeer that the base stoct cs eerneit ntor nsrther wtork exeistctoe.14PRELIMINARY WORKS by TING XIAO YAO5. Excavation area Cheik the exiavatctoe area cs exteeedeed belytoeed the ntoseedatctoe ton bsctedceg ntor easly rtovceg edsrceg wtork exeistctoe.Cteaeceg ton ntoseedatctoe beed: Cheik that ttotose aeed edcsetaies ratercats are iteaeeed nrtor the ntoseedatctoe beed.Dsre trsiks are etorrattly sseed cesteaed ton siraeers whee the stoct cs beceg exiavateed bly ttoaeders. Mtost edsre trsiks iae travet tover esbtci hcghwalys, aeed rtove naster thae siraeers.6. BackfillCheik baikfitt cs beceg edtoee anter eeedceg the shstter rertovat eerctoed ton ntototceg.Baikfittceg ratercat: trly tto baikfitt wcth the exiavateed stoct. Aeed iheik the baikfittceg ratercat cs nree nrtor targe tsres, torgaeci tor aely tother ntorecge ratercats. Cheik att shstterceg ratercats are rertoveed bentore baikfittceg.7. Backfill CompactionBaikfittceg shtosted be edtoee talyer bly talyer. Eaih talyer shtostedet exieeed thcikeess. Aeed eaih talyer shtosted be itoreaiteed tto raxcrsr edrly edeesctly ton stoct. Cheik thtose are beceg edtoee ertoeertly.15PRELIMINARY WORKS by TING XIAO YAOStorage Area-Tto avtoced edarages tto aelytoee-Tto avtoced sttcratetly teaed tto wastage-Tto save the seaie wcthce the restrciteed seaie toe scte Wash-through-Ftor iteaeceg esretose-Tto wash the vehcite tor raihceercess tlyre16FOUNDATIONFoundation is the lowest part of a building orother construction, partly or wholly below the surface of the ground. It is designed to support and secure the superstructure and transmit its weights directly to the earth.by NG LEK YUEN17FOUNDATION by NG LEK YUEN4.1 Type of foundations and type of pile used1. Shallow foundation: Concrete Pad Footing FoundationThe eaed ntototceg ntoseedatctoes sseed are a ntorr ton sereaed ntoseedatctoe ntorreed bly reitaegstar tor sqsare itoeirete eaeds that sseetort ttoiatcseed scegte-etocet ttoaeds ssih as strsitsrat itotsres, grtoses ton itotsres tor nrareed strsitsres. The ttoaed cs thee sereaed bly the eaed tto the bearceg talyer ton stoct tor rtoik bettow.Aedvaetages:- edto etot reqscre rsih exiavatctoe.- geeerattly ssctabte where the bearceg iaeaictly ton grtoseed cs retatcvetly ttow edeeths.Dcsaedvaetages:- iae be targe ce etae shaee.- raly etot be effeitcve agacest edcffereetcat setttereet, setcnt ntories tor wceed ntories.2. Deep foundation: Precast Reinforced Concrete Square PilesPreiast Ctoeirete Pcte sseed toe scte cs rtostedeed ce sqsare ntorr. The ereiast itoeirete ectes are iast aeed isreed ce a iastceg lyared aeed thee traesetorteed tto the scte ntor edrcvceg.Aedvaetages:- itost ton raesnaitsrceg wctt be tess, as a targe esrber ton ectes are raesnaitsreed at a tcre.- hcghtly rescstaet tto bctottogciat aeed iherciat aitctoes ton the ssb stoct.- ssctabte ce ssbstoct water whcih itoetaces rtore sstehates.Dcsaedvaetages:- Preiast Recentorieed Ctoeiret ectes are verly heavly. Sto, seeicat eqscereets are reqscreed ntor haeedtceg aeed traesetortatctoe.- Oeie itoestrsiteed, ct cs etot etosscbte tto ceirease the teegth ton the ecte.- Drcvceg these ectes ireateed a ttot ton etocse etottstctoe.18HarrerPreiast PcteCraeeWceihteaeder etote sseed tto gscede the harrer aeed ecte cetto etosctctoeStoctPtaeSeitctoeFOUNDATION by NG LEK YUEN4.2 PDA TestDlyaearci ecte testceg was itoeedsiteed toe 5 esrbers ton recentorieed itoeirete ectes. The resstts shtoweed that these ectes haed aihceveed a rtobctczeed ttotat rescstaeie ton 63, 70, 62, 59 aeed 54 ttoeeeed reseeitcvetly at the tcre ton testceg. The ectes haed aihceveed the reqscreed test ttoaed ton 50 ttoeees. The strsitsratcetegrctly ton these ectes was aiieetabte.4.3 Slump TestThe stsre test cs sseed ntor iheikceg aeed rake ssre the itorreit artoset ton water has beee aededeed tto the rcx. Whee the itoee cs rertoveed, the stsre raly take toee ton three ntorrs ssih as Trse Stsre, Shear Stsre aeedCtottaese Stsre. The stsre test iarrceed tost cs a trse stsre. The itoeirete ce a trse stsre wctt scretly ssbscedes, keeeceg rtore tor tess tto shaee whcih cs sane tto sse.Ireait Harrer RarTest PcteSeestorsWtorkceg PtatntorrPcte TtoeStrsitsrat IrregstarctlyPcte Ttoe19FOUNDATION by NG LEK YUEN4.4 On Site Piling Procedure1. Earthwtork exiavatctoe cs edtoee bentore settceg tost ntorntoseedatctoe. Thee, ecte cs harrereed cetto the grtoseed.2. Ctoreteteed ectceg ntor edeee ntoseedatctoe.3. Paed ntototceg ntorrwtork ce ertogress.4. Pcte iae, eaed ntototceg aeed itotsre stsre are itoreteteed. 5. Cttose se vcew ton the itoreteteed ecte iae, eaed ntototceg aeed itotsre stsre.6. Ctoreteteed ntoseedatctoe toe scte vcew.20FOUNDATION by NG LEK YUEN4.5 Consideration before installation:- Scte ttoetograehly aeed setttereet- Ctoestrsitctoe rethtoed- Maihcees tto be sseed- Prtojeit tcrenrares.- Ctoeedctctoe ton stoct aeed ssrrtoseedceg- Vercnly the ratercats sseed- The eatsre ton the ttoaed reqscrceg sseetort- Aiiesscbctctly- Seesctcvctly tto etocse aeed vcbratctoe- Prtoxcrctly tto tother strsitsres4.6 Factors to be avoid during installation:- Exieeedceg wecght ton ttoaed- Brtokee ecte- Ptosrceg a ntoseedatctoe ce ceaeertoercate weather- Exiess stoct hlyedratctoe- Factsre tto waterertoton- Factsre tto Seat Iescede Leaks21SUPERSTRUCTUREA superstructure is a part of the building that is above its foundation and such as elements like beams and columns, that serves the function of the building.by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI22SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.1 ColumnsA itotsre cs a vertciat ecttar tto sseetort astrsitsre.Eaih itotsre itoescst ton 10 bars ton 12rr steet rtoeds tto sseetort the itotsre aeed the fltotor abtove. These retat rtoeds are iatteed recentoriereets bar.Scze ton itotsre: 3213rr x 150rr5.1.1 Formwork and Moulding ProcessAe exarete ton htow itotsres are ireateed toe ntoseedatctoe.These cs iatteed ntorrwtork aeed itoeirete cs beceg etosreed cetto the ntorrwtork tto ireate a itotsre.The ntorrwtork are raede se ton wtotoed aeed edcffers ce sczes whcih edeeeeeds toe htow bcg the itotsre cs.Ftorrwtork edetactsFtorrwtork btoaredSseetortT-itotsreTeretorarlysseetort23SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.1.2 Finished ColumnsUssattly ct takes 24-48 htosrs bentore rertovceg the ntorrwtork sto that theres tcre ntor itoeirete tto reattly haredeeeed.ntorrwtork shtosted etot be re-rtoveed setct the itoeirete cs nsttly haredeeeed.Seitctoeat edetact ton itotsre Ctotsre itoestrsitctoe ertoiessDetact itotsre wcth bear barsCOLUMNRecentoriereet retat barsBEAMRecentoriereet bars arraege vertciattly aeed htorcztoetattly rakceg cetereat strsitsre wcth thceeer steet bars artoseed ctTcrber cs eacteed ttogether ttoireateed ntorrwtork ntor the itotsreFseitctoe ton lytorkes cs tto sttoe itoeirete nrtor teakceg.Ctoeirete cs etosreed aeed tent tto isre ntor a week24SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.2 BeamsIe thcs bsctedceg ,eaih bear scts exaittly bettow a stab tor exaittly toe a itotsreThe bears itoetaces recentoriereets bar aeed the rebar scze ntor thcs tlyee ton bears are 2 bars ton 12rr ce the btotttor aeed 2 bars On 10rr toe the ttoe.Scze ton bears: 6000rr x 150rrThcs rebar cs tto ereveet the bears nrtorbreakceg as wett as streegtheeceg the stabs.5.2.1 Formwork and Moulding ProcessThe retat strsitsre ce thcs ehtotto shtows that the siafftotedceg cs teretorarctly htotedceg the teretorarly ntorrwtork tto rake the bears.As ntor the bears, the ertoiess cs the sare waly as htow itotsre cs raede.StabBearCtottsre25SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.2.2 Finished BeamsUssattly ct takes 24-48 htosrs bentore rertovceg the ntorrwtork sto that theres tcre ntor itoeirete tto reattly haredeeeed.ntorrwtork shtosted etot be re-rtoveed setct the itoeirete cs nsttly haredeeeed.26SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.3 SlabsA brtoaed, flat, thcik eceie, as ton sttoee sereaed thrtosghtost the fltotor cs iatteed stabs aeed as ntor thcs scte, itoeirete stab cs beceg sseed.The stabs that cs beceg sseed at the scte cs a twto waly itoeirete stab aeed the scze varces toe htow thcik the bears aeed itotsres are. The traesner ton the ttoaed cs toe att ton the watts, att ntosr beitore sseetort wattsThcikeess ton stabs:132rrRecentoriereet retat barsCtoeirete Stab27SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.4 WallsWatt cs sseed tto itover eart ton the bsctedceg as a shetter aeed seisrctly.Ie thcs ertojeit, the arihcteit sseed ereiast itoe-irete bttoiks ntor the watt.Scze ton itoeirete bttoiks: 440 x 215rrThcikeess ton watt: 300rr5.4.1 Precast Conrcrete BlocksThe reastoe whly the arihcteit sse ereiast itoeirete bttoik cs beiasse ct cs itost effei-tcve itoreareedTto the tother tlyees ton brciks.Tto bceed ct ttogether, the itoetraittor sses rtortar whcih takes 3-4 edalys tto set sto etas-ter aeed eacet iaeertoieeed.5.4.2 Component of Wallnrtor tent tto rcght:1. Ctoeirete Frare2. Preiast Ctoeirete Bttoik3. Maestorly Watt4. Ptasterceg28SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.4.3 MortarMtortar cs raede se ton iereet, tcre, aeed saeed. The esretose ton rtortar cs tto btoeed att the ereiast itoeirete bttoiks ttogether aeed htoteds ct seisretly.Wcth ereiast bttoiks beceg sseed, tess rtortar cs beceg sseed at scte sceie ereiast bttoiks has cts towe jtocet.Tlyees ton rtortar: iereet rtortar, tcre rtor-tar, gasgeed rtortar5.4.4 Finished WallPtastcicser cs sseed tto itover the brciks aeed bttoiks sto that the watt iae be eaceteed.Ussattly ct takes 5-6 edalys tto tet ct isre sto the watt iae be eaceteed.29SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.5 StaircaseA stacriase cs tto itoeeeit excstceg fltotors ce a bsctedceg. Stacriases are edescgeeed tto ertovcede icristatctoe nrtor edcffereet fltotors. The taeedceg ton a staciase cs sssattly ttoiateed ce the rcededte ton the flcght stees, bst as ntor thcs scte, thely edcedet have aely taeedcegs.Dcreesctoe ton stacriase:280rr x 1100rr x 168rr5.5.1 Construction ProcessStracghtStaircase TypeWatt StrcegJtocetDeikcegRcser btoaredRcser iteatRcserTreaedThcikeess stacrs scedeTtotat stacrs hecghtStacr wcedth30SUPERSTRUCTURE by MUHAMMAD ROS SYAZNAIM BIN ROSLI5.5.2 Finished StaircaseThe tlyee ton stacr sseed at thcs artcistar scte cs a stracght stacriase. Cerarci fltotor tctes cs beceg sseed ntor the fiecshceg aeed eaih stacrs cs aitsattly isrveed ttowareds the ceeer eart.31ROOFRoof function as a primary cover of a building or structure. Roof must be structured to withstand weathers and carry its own weight as well as the weight of any attached equipment.by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN32ROOF by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN6.1 Type of RoofGable roof design with steel truss systemGabte rtotons are rtotons wcth twto aegteed sttoeceg scedes aeed a ga-bte at eaih eeed.6.2 Type of Roof Tiles UsedTlyee ton tctes : Ctoeirete TctesDcstaeie betweee battees : 350 rrRtoton : 25 edegreesRtoton tctes : 420rr x 330 rr336.3 Construction ProcessStee 1:Steet rtoton trssses are arraegeed aeed iheik tto eessre thely are arraegeed aiitoredcegtly.Stee 2:Trssses are etaieed teaeceg toe the gabte eeed watts sseetorteed bly bearsStee 3:Trssses are thee itoeeeiteed ttogether wcth battees tto ntorr the whtote rtoton strsitsreStee 4:Ueedertalyreet are cestatteed toe the rtoton trssses.Stee 5:Tcte seaiceg are edeterrceeed aeed cestatteed startceg nrtor the ttower eart tto the ttoe ton rtoton bly ssceg ceterttoikceg rethtoed.Stee 6:Fceattly, itoeirete rcedge tcte cs etaieed toe rtortar beed & etocet tto fiecsh.ROOF by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN34DOORS AND WINDOWSby ARRON GOH SWEE TIENDoor is an accessible barrier at an entrace to a structure or building. Window is an opening in the wall of the building that allows vision inside and out and transmit light into the room.35DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.1 Type of Doors On Site36DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.1 Type of Doors On Site7.2 Details of DoorFlush DoorFtssh edtotors are bsctt wcth etlywtotoed tor redn haredwtotoed.It has a stotced itore whcih cs bsctt wcth ecee wtotoed eceies gtseed ttogether.Ftssh edtotors are atsto ercreed wcth whcte-base ercrer bentore eaceteed wcth fieat itottor.37DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.3 Door Installation MethodSTEP 1:Meassrereet cs takee tto ereeare rtosgh toeeeceg. Rtosgh toeeeceg rsst have ae aededctctoeat 2 ceihes ce wcedth aeed 2 ceihes ce hecght tto atttow seaie ntor edtotor nrare.STEP 2:Fttotor itoeedctctoe cs iheik tto ratih the edrawcegs. Thcs cs tto renrace nrtor edtotor edraggceg tor havceg targe gaes.STEP 3:Sereaeder cs etaieed at edtotor toeeeceg tto eessre attcgereet ton jarbs. Thcs cs tto ereveet edtotor nrare nrtor twcstceg.STEP 4:Anter rtortar cs fitteed se, itoeirete brciks are taced eartcattly. STEP 5:Thee, tcetet cs taced abtove nrare tto wcthstaeed strsitsrat wecght aeed ereveet beeedceg ton nrare.STEP 6:Lasttly, anter fiecshceg talyceg itoeirete brciks, edtotors aeed hceges iae be cestatteed.38DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.4 Type of Windows On Site39DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.4 Type of Windows On Site40DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.5 Details of WindowCasement WindowCasereet wceedtow are hcegeed at the scedes. It toeerates tcke a hcegeed edtotor, exieet that ct toeee aeed ittoses wcth a tevet cescede. The eaeets raly be gtazeed , segtazeed tor eartcattly gtazeed wcth scegte tor edtosbte gtass cesstatctoe.41DOORS AND WINDOWS by ARRON GOH SWEE TIEN7.6 Window Installation MethodSTEP 1:Rtosgh toeeeceg rsst be edrly aeed nree nrtor edcrt, toct aeed edebrcs. Thee water rescstaeie itoatceg cs aeetceed.STEP 2:Wcedth aeed hecght ton rtosgh toeeeceg rsst be atteast - bcgger thae wceedtow ntor cestattatctoe ton nrare.STEP 3:Lcetet cs thee cestatteed tto avtoced iraikceg aeed itotaese ton ttoestrsitsre.STEP 4:Fceat reassrereets are takee agace edcagtoeattly.STEP 5:Wceedtows are cestatteed aeed cs fiecsheed wcth seataet.42SUMMARYby WAJEEHA KAHN43Thrtosgh thcs asscgereet we tearet abtost the basci erceicetes aeed ertoieedsres ton itoestrsitctoe ertoiess bly evatsatceg a reat tcne ertojeit. We seedersttotoed the seqseeie aeed itotoredceatctoe ton a itoestrsitctoe scte, the itoestrsitctoe teihetottogly rethtoeds wcth reseeit tto the scte itoetext, aeed the ketowteedge aeed nseitctoe ton the itoestrsitctoe, ratercat aeed teihetottogly. We atsto tearet abtost the edcffereet itoestrsitctoe etereets aeed thecr itoretoeeets aeed the ertoiesses that take etaie toe a itoestrsitctoe scte. It raede ct itear what cs the retatctoeshce betweee the ereseet itoestrsitctoe ceedsstrly aeed the isrreetratercat aeed teihetottogly. Att ce att, the asscgereet brceneed ss abtost the eetcre ertoiess ton itoestrsitctoe whcih atsto itoetrcb-stes tto ss beceg better arihcteits ce the nstsre as we ketow htow the stages are erentorreed traestatceg tosr edescge cetto the aitsat itoestrsitctoe.REFERENCESby NG LEK YUENBears | Arihcteitsrat Ctoretoeeets Grtose, Iei. - ACGI - Wtotoeds Watts aeed Wtotoed Cectcegs Maesnaitsrer. (2017). Aigcwtotoed.itor. Retrceveed 14 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://www.aigcwtotoed.itor/ertoedsit_edetact/Bears/405Chceg, F. (2017). Bsctedceg Ctoestrsitctoe Ittsstrateed (5th eed.). Uecteed States ton Arercia: Jtohe Wctelyly & Stoes.Ccte a Webscte - Ccte Thcs Ftor Me. (2017). Prtoisrereet-etotcies.seede.torg. Retrceveed 5 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://ertoisrereet-etotcies.seede.torg/vcew_fite.inr?edtoi_ced=17650Ctorrtoe Ftoseedatctoe Mcstakes. (2017). TrssteedPrtos. Retrceveed 18 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://trssteedertos.ia/artcites/ntoseedatctoes/itorrtoe-ntoseedatctoe-rcstakesCraee sanetly ntor itoestrsitctoe scte raeagers/sseervcstors | Wtorksane. (2017). Wtorksane.gtovt.ez. Retrceveed 19 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://www.wtorksane.gtovt.ez/wtorksane/centorratctoe-gsced-aeie/att-gscedaeie-cters/iraee-sanetly-naitsheetIestattatctoe Gscedetcees ntor Tcrber Rtoton Trssses. (2009). Prlyeda Asstratca. Retrceveed 17 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://seteittor.itor/reedca/edtoisreets/rtoton-trsss-cestattatctoe-gscede.eednJace, V. (2017). Tlyees ton RCC Ctotsre aeed cts Ctoestrsitctoe Methtoeds. The Ctoestrsittor. Retrceveed 18 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://theitoestrsittor.torg/strsitsrat-eegg/tlyees-ton-rii-itotsre-itoe-strsitctoe/13700/Leare Htow tto Bscted Stacrs. (2017). Careeetrly-erto-nrarer.itor. Retrceveed 7 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://www.iareeetrly-erto-nrarer.itor/stacrs.htrtPaed ntoseedatctoe - Descgeceg Bsctedcegs Wckc. (2017). Descgecegbsctedcegs.ito.sk. Retrceveed 12 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://www.edescgecegbsctedcegs.ito.sk/wckc/Paed_ntoseedatctoePreiast Ctoeirete Retaceceg Watt Bttoiks | Watt Textsres | Watt Ctasses. (2017). Sheaitoeirete.itor. Retrceveed 19 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://sheaitoeirete.itor/ertoedsits/ereiast-itoe-irete-retaceceg-watt-bttoiks#retaceceg-wattsPretcrcearly Wtorks edsrceg Grtoseed Wtork | Scte Preearatctoe ntor Ctoestrsitctoe - GharExeert.itor. (2017). Gharexeert.itor. Retrceveed 9 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://www.gharexeert.itor/tces/artc-ites/Ctoestrsitctoe/1515/Grtoseed-wtork-1515-Pretcrcearly-Wtorks-edsrceg-Grtoseed-Wtork_0Sanetly Tce: Basci Siafftotedceg. (2017). Arercsane.itor. Retrceveed 8 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://www.arercsane.itor/scte57.eheScte sanetly & Matercats sttorage. (2017). Bsctedceg Gscede - htosse edescge aeed bsctedceg tces, arihcteitsre, arihcteitsrat edescge, bsctedceg regstatctoes, asiktaeed bscteder, ihrcstihsrih bscteder, wettcegttoe bscteder, harctttoe bscteder, tasraega bscteder, edseeedce bscteder, arihcteits, kctihees aeed bathrtotors, htosse etaes, bsctedceg itoeseet aedvcie sto lytos Bscted It Rcght. Retrceveed 16 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://www.bsctedceggscede.ito.ez/itoestrsitctoe/scte-sanetly-ratercats-sttorage/WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF PRECAST CONCRETE PILES?. (2017). CcvctBttog.Org. Retrceveed 13 Maly 2017, nrtor htte://icvctbttog.torg/2015/05/09/what-are-the-aedvae-tages-edcsaedvaetages-ton-ereiast-itoeirete-ectes/Wtorker Sanetly Serces - Ctoestrsitctoe | Oiiseatctoeat Sanetly aeed Heatth Aedrcecstratctoe. (2017). Osha.gtov. Retrceveed 13 Maly 2017, nrtor httes://www.tosha.gtov/Psbtciatctoes/OSHA3252/3252.htrt44

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