41
SKELETAL SYSTEM

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SKELETAL SYSTEM

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Major Bones-Movement

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Bone Types

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Joint types

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Joint actionsProvide a fulcrum point for muscles to do work.

They are strong connections that join bones, teeth and cartilage of the body to one another.

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6 Types of Joint Actions

Flexion Extension

Abduction

CircumductionAdduction

Rotation

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Adduction

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How many muscles are in the human body?

How do we determine the major muscles involved in a movement and related joint action?

Question time

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Question time

If Nikolina performs a narrow grip bench press while Chris uses a wide grip are they working the same muscles?

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Muscular system

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Muscle relationships• There are four main muscle

relationships:• Agonists (prime movers)• Antagonists• Stabilizers• assistors

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Muscle relationshipsAgonists (prime muscle mover)- the agonists are generally the muscle being worked on

Antagonist- is the opposing muscle of the agonist

Stabilizers- are the muscles that control the joint and allow the exercise to be performed without damaging the it

Assistors- help the agonist muscle during the exercise motion

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Muscle contractionsisometric contraction • no change in length of the muscle that is contracting

isotonic contraction • using your muscles to successfully push or pull an object.

Isotonic contractions are further divided into two types:

concentric contraction • muscle decreases in length against an opposing load, such as lifting a weight up.

eccentric contraction • muscle increases in length as it resists a load, such as lowering a weight down in

a slow, controlled fashion.

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Time for some EURO training !!!!

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Respiratory System

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STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

The respiratory system is the system in the human body that enables us to breathe.

The act of breathing includes: • inhaling and exhaling • absorption of oxygen from• discharge of carbon dioxide

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Parts of the respiratory system

The respiratory system is divided into two parts:

Upper respiratory tract: This includes the nose, mouth, and the beginning of the trachea (the section that takes air in and lets it out).

Lower respiratory tract: This includes the trachea, the bronchi, broncheoli and the lungs (the act of breathing takes place in this part of the system).

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LUNG FUNCTIONThe chest contains two lungs, one on either side of it. Soft and protected by the ribcage, the lungs have the following purpose:

• to bring oxygen (abbreviated O2), into the body and to remove carbon dioxide (abbreviated CO2

Oxygen is a gas that provides us energy while carbon dioxide is a waste product or "exhaust" of the body.

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How lung protects itself

The lungs have several ways of protecting themselves from irritants:

• the nose acts as a filter when • breathing in• coughing

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Circulatory System

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Components of BloodRed Blood Cells: Carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body

Remove waste from the blood e.g. carbon dioxide

Transfusions of red blood cells are used to treat who suffer from conditions such as: sever anaemia or patients who suffer severe blood loss

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Components of BloodWhite Blood Cells Vital part of immune system, help body fight infection.

Circulate in the blood so they can be transported to the area where the infection has developed.

Increase of white blood cell count is a sign of infection within the body.

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Components of BloodPlatelets:Tiny plates that wedge together covering tears in the blood vessels preventing blood from leaking into surrounding tissue.

Assist in the blood clotting process

Primary use is to help patients who suffer from various cancers. Treatment of cancers can deplete a patients platelet count.

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Components of BloodPlasma: Contains important nutrients and clotting factors which help

to prevent or stop bleeding

Most versatile component of blood and is used to treat a number of potentially life-threatening conditions including burns, creating immunisation and helping haemophiliacs.

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Structure and FunctionHeart:

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HeartFunction:

The heart pumps blood around the body. The heart is a

double pump made up of four chambers, with the flow of

blood going in one direction due to the presence of the

heart valves.

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ArteriesFunction: Provide oxygenated blood to the body. Arteries divide like

little tree braches until they are slender.

Also work in providing the deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

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VeinsFunction: Have one-way valves instead of muscles, to stop blood from

running back the wrong way.

Carry deoxygenated blood from the body to heart, where it can be sent to the lungs.

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CapillariesFunction: Very small, blood cells only move through them one at a

time. Oxygen and nutrients are passed from these capillaries to

the cells. Capillaries are also connected to the veins, so waste from

the cells can be transferred to the blood.

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Pulmonary and systemic circulation

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Pulmonary

System in which oxygen is added to the blood

Deoxygenated blood travels from heart to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated again

Right atrium -right ventricle -pulmonary artery-lungs

Pulmonary system reverses role of arteries and veins

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SystemicOxygenated blood travels throughout the body

Includes deoxygenated blood returning back to the heart from the body

Lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium-left ventricle-aorta.

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Blood pressureIs the amount of pressure exerted by the circulating blood against the arterial walls

Systolic: Pressure in arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction

Diastolic: Pressure when ventricles are relaxed

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Blood Pressure measurement

Most commonly measured with a sphygmomanometer, measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg)

Consists of rubber cuff, pressure gauge and is used with a stethoscope

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Procedure

1) Cuff is strapped around left bicep, inflated to restrict blood blow.

2) Stethoscope is then placed under the cuff but over brachial artery.

3) Pressure of the cuff is slowly released.

Only two measurements are taken on the gauge:• Very first heartbeat/sound heard (systolic)• When no more sound is heard at all (diastolic)