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<ul><li> 1. Teaching for Academic LearningProfessor Bill Bauer EDUC 202 Marietta College Chapter 12 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon</li></ul> <p> 2. Overview Motivation to Learn in School On TARGETT for Learning Teacher Expectations Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful LearningCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 3. Concept Map for Chapter 11 Strategies for Motivation &amp; Thoughtful LearningMotivation to Learn in School Motivation, Teaching, and LearningTeacher Expectations Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconOn TARGETT for Learning 4. Motivation to Learn in School Goals for students: Productive involvement State motivation Trait motivation Thoughtful learnersCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 5. On TARGETT for Learning Task motivation Autonomy Rewards Grouping Evaluation &amp; feedback Time for learning Teacher expectationsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconSee Table 11.2, Woolfolk, p. 404 6. Tasks for Learning Task operations: risk &amp; ambiguity Task value Attainment value Intrinsic or interest value Utility valueAuthentic tasks Problem-based learningCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 7. Doyles Task OperationsAMBIGUITYRISK High HighLowComprehension ComprehensionOpinion Opinion A M B I G U I T YD oyles Ta sk Opera tio ns O non pi iC pr hni o om e e s nD f cuM or Ta k i i l em y s t r o R t ne ou iSi pl M or Tas m e em y k or R t ne ou iR K S ILowDifficult memory Difficult memory or difficult routine or difficult routineCopyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconSimple memory Simple memory or simple routine or simple routine 8. Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishments Supporting student choices Bounded choices Student choice on feedback See Figure 11.2, Woolfolk, p. 409Recognizing accomplishment Authentic praise Personal improvement Cautions for use of rewards!Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 9. Grouping, Evaluation, &amp; Time Goal structuresCompetitive Cooperative Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconSTAD TGTIndividualistic Effects of evaluation Effects of time pressure 10. Teacher Expectations Pygmalion in the classroom Self-fulfilling prophecy Sustaining expectation effect Sources of expectations IQ tests Sex differences ReputationsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 11. Perspective on Teacher Expectations Students will rise to the level of expectation. Jaime Escalante Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 12. Teacher Behaviors and Student Reactions Instructional strategies Teacher comments about expectationsTeacher-student interaction differences Quality and quantity of questions Amount of time to answer Number of teacher interruptions Nonverbal behaviorsSee Table 11.4, Woolfolk, p. 418, and Guidelines, p. 420 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 13. Reflection Questions Think of a teacher that was particularly encouraging for you. What motivation strategies did that teacher employ? Do you have any biases or behaviors that may send messages to students that they lack competence? How will you monitor possible biases that you may have?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 14. Strategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful LearningCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 15. Necessary Classroom Conditions Organized classroomFree from interruptionsSafe-to-fail environmentChallenging but reasonable workAuthentic, worthwhile tasksCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 16. Critical Student Questions Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconCan I do it? Do I want to do it? What do I need to do to succeed? 17. Building Confidence &amp; Positive Expectations Match tasks to student ability level Move in small steps Clear, specific, attainable learning goals Stress self-comparison Communicate that academic ability can be improved Model good problem solvingCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 18. Seeing the Value of Learning Younger students: intrinsic/interest value Older students: utility value Attainment value: achievable Intrinsic value Tie class activities to student interests Arouse curiosity Make learning fun Use novelty and familiarityCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 19. Seeing the Value of Learning: Instrumental Explain connections Provide incentives and rewards if needed Authentic tasks: Ill-structured Real world problemsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 20. Staying Focused on the Task Frequent opportunities to respond Have students create finished products Avoid heavy emphasis on grades and competition Reduce task risk without oversimplifying the task Model motivation to learn Teach particular learning tacticsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 21. Beginning Teachers &amp; Motivation Approaches by Rank Reward/punishment Attention-focusing Relevance Confidence-buildingSee Figure 11.5, Woolfolk, p. 425 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 22. Beginning Teachers Motivation Strategies Reward/Punish Build Confidence Focus Attention RelevanceCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 23. Student Views of Motivation Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconKnow YOUR students Expect developmental differences Expect individual differences Use TARGETT to help meet the needs of YOUR students 24. Honest Enthusiasm Is ContagiousWestern Michigan University Mens Basketball Coach, 1975Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 25. ScenariosThe next three slides highlight three scenarios based on real students. Reflect on each scenario. How will you apply the principles of motivation to help each student succeed?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 26. Heidi : 1st Grade Very quiet: shyWill not speak out loud in classWill not maintain eye contactPoor reading skillsDraws beautifullyWrites poetryCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 27. Josh : 4th Grade ADHDChild of divorceMonday depressionDad is ex-Marine drill sergeant15% homework handed inLoves class discussionsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 28. Adam : Junior High Low gradesPhysically big &amp; athleticVandalism with police recordInterview: honest, intelligent, &amp; wittyHelpful with other studentsNo homework handed inCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 29. Reflection Questions What are ways of soliciting information about what motivates your students? If several members of the French Club are in your math class, how could you tie their interests in French with your math content? In your discipline, how will you connect content with real world, authentic tasks?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 30. Summary Motivation to Learn in SchoolOn TARGETT for LearningTeacher ExpectationsStrategies to Encourage Motivation and Thoughtful LearningCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 31. Review Questions Define motivation to learn. What does TARGETT stand for? How do tasks affect motivation? What does it mean for students to negotiate a task? What are the three kinds of task value? Distinguish between bounded and unbounded choices.Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 32. Review Questions How can recognition undermine motivation and a sense of self-efficacy? What determines whether a goal structure is cooperative, competitive, or individualistic? How does evaluative climate affect goalsetting? What are some effects of time on motivation?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 33. Review Questions What are some sources of teacher expectations? What are the two kinds of expectation effects and how do they happen? What are the different avenues for communicating teacher expectations? What are four conditions that must exist in a classroom before any motivational strategies can be successful?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 34. Review Questions What else can teachers do to motivate students? What are the most commonly used motivational strategies of beginning teachers? What can we learn from students about motivation?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon 35. End Chapter 11Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon </p>