1. Bharat Bhammar Roll No : 04 Semester : 2 Year : 2014-15 Paper :08: Cultural Studies Submitted to: Smt. S.B.Gardi Department of English M.K. Bhav. University Post structuralism and Deconstruction
2. What is Structuralism ? It is the offshoot of certain developments in linguistics and anthropologists .Saussure's mode of the synchronic study of language was an attempt to formulate the grammar of a language from a study of parole. Using the Saussurian linguistic model, Claude Levi-Strauss examined the customs and conventions of some cultures with a view of arriving at the grammar of those cultures. Structuralism aims at forming a poetics or the science of literature from a study of literary works.
3. Writers of Structuralism Claude Levi- Strauss Roland Barthes Saussure
4. Differences between the Structuralism and Post structuralism Structuralism and post structuralism have a great deal in common. Post structuralism retains structuralisms emphasis on language; furthermore, they retain the structuralist belief that all cultural systems can be represented as coded systems of meaning rather than direct transactions with reality. Moreover, many of the individuals commonly associated with post structuralism Foucault, Baudrillard, even Barthesbegan as structuralists and moved in the course of their thought in a poststructuralist direction. However, there are some key differences that help us to define the terms, even though we should understand them not as strict categories but as positions along a spectrum.
5. What is Post structuralism ? Post structuralism designates a broad variety of critical perspectives and producers that in the 1970s displaced structuralism from its prominence as the radically innovative way of dealing with language and other signifying systems. Writers of Post structuralism Roland Barthes Jacques Derrida
6. Deconstruction is a form of philosophical and literary analysis derived principally from Jacques Derrida's 1967 work Of Grammatology. In the 1980s it designated more loosely a range of theoretical enterprises in diverse areas of the humanities and social sciences, includingin addition to philosophy and literature. What is Deconstruction ? Deconstruction is philosophy of meaning; free play of meaning. The word Bet and Bat - a bird have a lot of meanings and those meanings play into our mind. To identify the meaning and true meaning of words is deconstruction. Language always empowers us. Words control us. We do not go beyond the words
7. If we consider one superior then it means we have already considered one inferior. Superiority of one thing and inferiority of that thing always come together and questions of ethics, morality too. It always goes on changing. We do not have general view. There are differences. Majority and Minority always come together. Binary Opposition Superiority Inferiority Being - Non-being Reality - Appearance Good - Bad Virtue - Vice Day - Night Light - Darkness Male - Female White - Black Colonizer - Colonized Majority - Minority
8. Majority has power position and controls others and minority suffers, Faces many problems. Their desires and ambitions have been suppressed. The way people use words becomes more important. Deconstruction helps us understand silence voices, ignored things which are left out. Deconstruction changes our way of looking towards different things and our perspectives. The thing which arrives after the first thing redefines the previous and the first thing. Idea becomes ideology. Meaning are given in the context. The idea of signifier and signified comes. Words have different meanings. In written words meaning dies. The spoken words are more contextualized. Written things are judged and examined by readers.
9. Deconstruction :Derrid's Concept In the criticism of literature, Deconstruction is a theory and practice of reading. Which questions and claims to 'subvert' or 'undermine' The assumption that the system of language provides grounds that are adequate to establish the boundaries. The coherence or unity, and determine meaning of a literary text. Typically, a deconstructive reading sets out to show the conflicting forces within the text itself to dissipate the seeming definiteness of its structure and meaning into indefinite array of incompatibility and undividable possibilities.
10. Logo centrism / Phonocentrism He tries to deconstruct the idea of prioritization. The way we look at the word. Language plays a vital role. Language made up of words and words getting into the meaning and something will come into existence. Words cannot be measured or understood from the dictionary. The truth and the fact play a vital role. Language too becomes an obstacle. Deconstruction measures the possibility of falsehood in truth. Truth does not require proof or evidence. Then why does it need the support of 'words' ? Words do not convey the exact meaning what they want to say. Truth need not be proved. The process of knowing and unknowing goes together.