1. J. Terry Gates, Mary E. Bickel Building Bridges, Jefferson City, Missouri Nov. 6-8, 2011 2. Deepen achievement now. Create better futures for kids. 3. What can kids do with their knowledge and skills? 1: Knowledge-keepers. 2: Knowledge-tellers. 3: Knowledge-builders. Knowledge-builders make magic!! They can choose to be 4. Building frameworks today 1: Frame and share ways to strengthen kids tutoring skills. 2: Frame a group instruction process for peer teachers. Kids who teach learn more deeply. 5. What are frameworks? 6. How is peer teaching different from pair learning, cooperative learning, group projects, etc.? Peer Teaching Content: The PT can decide what content comes next, or if prior content needs to be re-taught to learner(s). Instruction: The PT is expected to select and apply effective approachesways to raise the achievement level of their learner(s). Assessment: The PT deals directly with responses from their learner(s) and gives feedback about their quality. Cooperative Learning Content: The content is structured by the teacher. Students follow directions. All must learn the content. Instruction: Students have equal duties to help group members learn, and try to raise the groups achievement level. Assessment: Students make mostly informal judgments about contributions of other members as they go along. 7. Two frameworks for your peer teachers 1: Tutoring: MOAT! 2: Group instruction: POLAR+ 8. Framework 1: Tutoring What do tutors do? They MOAT! Motivate. Get the learner moving; re-direct their efforts. Offer Give explanations, hints, and games. Ask Pose questions, challenges, and wait four seconds. Thank Thank learners for their efforts, celebrate successes. ! Use individual initiative, creativity, unique reinforcers. 9. The expertise gap in tutoring. Challenge zone* Tutor's content knowledge level Learner's content knowledge level Tutor frustration zone Learner frustration zone High High Low *The interactional side of the Zone of Proximal Development. Adapted from L. S. Vygotsky. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Press, p. 86. 10. Tutors need a framework* for coaching. Remember Recognize, recall, and define facts, terms, dates, names. Understand Summarize ideas: classify, infer, compare, explain, etc. Apply Utilize a learned procedure to solve a similar problem; find real-life uses for the information. Analyze Reduce a complex set into constituent and related parts, and explain how the parts relate; differentiate, assign functions, organize, etc. Evaluate Use criteria to assess the value, effectiveness, or applicability of creative processes and solutions to problems. Create Combine materials, knowledge, ideas, and processes to make something new. *Adapted from David R. Krathwohl. Autumn 2002. A revision of Blooms Taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212-218. See also Anderson, L. W., and D. R. Krathwohl (Eds.). 2001. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Education Objectives (complete ed.). New York: Longman. 11. Cross-age peer tutoring builds success. Missouri school districts No. of districts in 2008-09 Avg. no. 2009 diplomas All districts awarding 2009 diplomas* 457 136.42 Districts with an A+ high school 256 185.7 Non-A+ districts 201 73.21 *Adapted from http://dese.mo.gov/schooldata/ftpdata.html (accessed 27 January 2010). The table is titled graduation_rate.xls. Reported in J. T. Gates, M. E. Bickel, & S. Hembrough. (2010). Missouri's A+ Tutoring Resource: A Status Study. St. Louis, MO: The Hoenny Center, Appendix B1. 12. Think POLAR+ Plan Organize Lead Assess / reinforce Reflect / improve Framework 2: Group instruction 13. POLAR+ plan organize lead assess/ reinforce reflect/ improve 14. Whats the + in POLAR+? Real-life teaching situations require a lot. Intuition, creativity, individuality, perseverance, several kinds of knowledge, much more Teacher-to-teacher talk, even with kids. Teaching grows with people who do it. A Pathway in Teaching from early grades. Adapt these ideas! Do them YOUR way! PPeerrssoonnaalliittyy 15. Safe, structured opportunities End-of-the-day wrap-up Second grade - The College School, Webster Groves, Missouri - Colleen Corbett and Cristina Rapp Student has each job for 2 weeks per year, in final 15 minutes each day; jobs rotate each Monday Stack chairs, straighten library, etc. Journal entry Scrapbook page Joke of the day Juicy word Calendar work (color day block, ask questions) Science Fridays, featuring the scientist of the week 16. POLAR+ opportunity Note: In the presentation, we showed a video of four second-graders quizzing their peers on a) a riddle (Joke of the Day), b) a vocabulary word (Juicy Word), and c) two questions about February. They illustrated four different teaching personalities (philosopher, drill sergeant, nurturer, and game show host) and many good teaching skills. The discussion centered around several observations: 1.Their personalities came through clearly. The mentors job is to reveal to them the personality traits that are effective in teaching and to help them find alternative behaviors for traits that impede learning. 2.There were some brilliant teaching skills displayed by these children as well as some habits that should be changed. 3.These kids responded to answers their peers gave to their questions in various ways, consistent with their individual differences (above). The impulse to respond is going to be there in every similar situation, but how the child behaves on that impulse can be coached for effectiveness. 17. So, what do my kids need from me in peer teaching? 1: Safe, structured opportunities. 2: Professional tips. 3: Some minimal supervision: Coaching. Feedback. Debriefing. Prompts for reflecting. 18. Why debrief kids? Reveal teaching strengths to themselves. Let you know what theyre thinking. Get kids planning for improvements. Hear some great insights about teaching. A third grader reflects on teaching natural science topics to 2nd graders in the park: It was hard. I didnt get a break until lunch and I had to stand up all the time. 19. Our invitation Join our Professional Partners National Network. Add more peer teaching strategies to your classroom planning. Apply for a Hoenny Center Grant for an action research report. (See Resources at www.hoennycenter.org.) Share your peer teaching successes, tips, and classroom research through our web site. Invite colleagues to help you build a K-12 vertical system in your district. Start a Pathway in Teaching program. Keep us posted at email@example.com. 20. www.hoennycenter.org firstname.lastname@example.org On the next frontier of teacher development.